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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

This page contains all of the variables that are available for use in the SESMAD database. Each of these variables is viewable in its own page via the table below. In addition to providing the variables that are measured in the cases of the SESMAD database, this page serves as a library of many of the concepts and variables that have proven to be most important in the study of human-environment interactions. Each variable is described by a set of properties, including the following:

Type: Whether the variable is measured at the (1) interval, (2) ordinal, (3) categorical, or (4) open-text level.

Component Type: What type of component (e.g. actor group) the variable describes.

Theme: What broad thematic category (e.g. institutions) the variable belongs to.

Question: What question is posed to the user when they are measuring the variable for a case.

Select options: The range of values that the variable can take on.

Unit: For interval variables, the unit of measurement.

Role: Records whether the variable describes components with a particular role (e.g. commons users)

Importance: Describes the theoretical importance of the variable

Definition: provides a basic definition of the variable.

Sector: Records what sector(s) (e.g. fisheries) the variable is associated with, if it is specific to a particular sector.

Variables can be added by users to help them describe their own type of case. Through the sector property, variable can be made specific to different sectors (e.g. fisheries), such that only those cases that are also assigned to that sector will be asked about that variable. In this way the database tailors the questions asked of a user to the type of system they are examining.

 

NameData TypeComponent TypeAttachmentSectorProject(s)Theme

Actor adaptive capacity

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Actor debt

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Actor effect

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Actor group boundary clarity

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Actor group boundary fuzziness

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Actor group coordination

Categorical

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Institutions

Actor group size

Interval

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Incentives

Actor group trust

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Social Capital

Actor scientific knowledge

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Knowledge And Uncertainty

Actor traditional knowledge

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Knowledge And Uncertainty

Actor vulnerability

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

Age of PHC

Interval

Governance System

Component Interaction

Fiji fisheries

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

Basin switch

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Outcomes

Begin date

Text

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

Beginning condition

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Biodiversity trend

Ordinal

Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Biotic

Binary

Natural Resource Unit

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

Black market scale

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Black markets

Binary

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Causal level

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Causation

Centralization

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Climate change

Binary

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

External

Collective action

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Commercial Harvest Percent

Ordinal

Local Resource User Group

Component Interaction

Fiji fisheries

Incentives

Commons accessibility

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Spatial

Commons actions

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Commons aggregation

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

Commons alternatives

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Incentives

Commons boundaries

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Biophysical

Commons boundary negotiability

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Commons condition trend

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Outcomes

Commons feedback speed fix

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Commons feedback speed use

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Commons feedback visibility fix

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Commons feedback visibility use

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Commons heterogeneity

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Spatial

Commons indicator

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit

Case Component

SESMAD

Biophysical

Commons low cost technology

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Technology

Commons mobility

Ordinal

Pollutant, Natural Resource Unit

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Spatial

Commons political power

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Context

Commons renewability

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Resource Renewability

Commons scarcity

Ordinal

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Biophysical

Commons spatial extent

Interval

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Spatial

Commons unit size

Ordinal

Pollutant, Natural Resource Unit

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Biophysical

Commons use proportion

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Context

Commons user mobility

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Community Participation

Ordinal

Local Resource User Group

Case Component

Fiji fisheries

Social Capital

Compliance

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

Condition confidence

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Outcomes

Conflict resolution

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

Costs of exit

Binary

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Incentives

Cultural dependence

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Incentives

Cultural heterogeneity

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Heterogeneity

Cultural services condition

Ordinal

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Outcomes

Dams

Binary

Natural Resource System, Natural Resource Unit

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Technology

Dams role

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Technology

Distance to markets

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD

Institutions

ES market Scale

Categorical

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Ecological resilience

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Biophysical

Economic dependence

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

Economic heterogeneity

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Heterogeneity

Economic status

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Incentives

Ecosystem service management

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Ecosystem services markets

Binary

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Effect confidence

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

End Date

Text

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

End condition

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Environmental commons scientific knowledge

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Knowledge And Uncertainty

Environmental medium

Categorical

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Biophysical

Environmental monitoring

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Enforcement

External Ecological Connectivity

Ordinal

Natural Resource System

Case Component

SESMAD

Biophysical

External monitoring

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

External recognition

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

External

External sanctions

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

External support

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Flexible rights

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Governance knowledge use

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

Governance scale

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

Governance strictness trend

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Governance system age

Text

Governance System

Component Interaction

Theories, SESMAD

Basic

Governance system description

Text

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

Governance system effect

Categorical

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Governance system spatial extent

Text

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD

Spatial

Governance trigger

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

Horizontal coordination

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD

Institutions

Human population size change

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

External

Incentive type

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Infrastructure

Text

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Technology

Institutional diversity

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Inter annual predictability

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD

Knowledge And Uncertainty

Inter-group trust

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Social Capital

Interest heterogeneity

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Heterogeneity

Internal Ecological Connectivity

Ordinal

Natural Resource System

Case Component

SESMAD

Biophysical

Intra annual predictability

Ordinal

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD

Knowledge And Uncertainty

Invasives

Binary

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

External

Leadership

Categorical

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Leadership

Leadership accountability

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Leadership

Leadership authority

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Leadership

Leakage

Categorical

Environmental Common

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

External

Live coral cover

Interval

Environmental Common

Case Component

Fiji fisheries

Biophysical

Livelihood alternatives

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Incentives

MPA IUCN somewhat strict zones

Interval

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA IUCN sustainable zones

Interval

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA budget

Interval

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA connectivity

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA internal natural boundaries

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Biophysical

MPA migratory benefit

Binary

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Outcomes

MPA migratory life history

Text

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Biophysical

MPA migratory threats and redux

Text

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA motivation

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA primary goal (in practice)

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA protection

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

MPA threats

Text

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Context

MPA threats to migratory sp

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Biophysical

Market scale

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Markets

Binary

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Metric diversity

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Monitoring technology

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Enforcement

Multiple levels

Categorical

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Natural storage

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Technology

Outsider exclusion

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

Outsiders

Ordinal

Local Resource User Group

Component Interaction

Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Over-capitalization

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Technology

PA CAR principles

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

PA IUCN strict zones

Interval

Governance System

Case Component

Marine protected areas

SESMAD

Institutions

PHC Compliance

Ordinal

Local Resource User Group

Component Interaction

Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

PHC Harvest Frequency

Interval

Governance System

Component Interaction

Fiji fisheries

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

PHC Harvest Interval

Interval

Governance System

Component Interaction

Fiji fisheries

Institutional Biophysical Linkage

PHC Management Scale

Categorical

Governance System

Case Component

Fiji fisheries

Spatial

Participation in PA siting

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Context

Participation in PA zoning

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Context

Participation in environmental monitoring

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Enforcement

Participation in rule making

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Context

Participation in social monitoring (enforcement)

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Enforcement

Past collaboration

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Social Capital

Personal communication

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Social Capital

Perverse incentives

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Incentives

Point/Nonpoint

Categorical

Pollutant

Case Component

SESMAD

Spatial

Policy instrument

Categorical

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Price of rights

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Productivity

Ordinal

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Resource Renewability

Property heterogeneity

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Property regime

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Property security

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Proportionality (of costs and benefits)

Binary

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Incentives

Provision services condition

Ordinal

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Outcomes

Regulating services condition

Ordinal

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

Remote communication

Ordinal

Actor

Case Component

SESMAD

Social Capital

Residence Time

Ordinal

Pollutant

Case Component

SESMAD

Biophysical

Resource market value

Ordinal

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Right heterogeneity

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Rights granting process

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Rights type

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Roads

Binary

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Technology

Roads role

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Technology

Roving bandit

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

Runoff input

Binary

Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

External

Scale match

Binary

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Science-based policy

Ordinal

Formal System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Institutions

Self Sanctions

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

Self monitoring

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Enforcement

Social-ecological fit

Ordinal

Governance System

Case Component

SESMAD

Institutions

Spatial extent of PHC

Interval

Environmental Common

Case Component

Fiji fisheries

Spatial

Technical storage

Categorical

Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System

Component Interaction

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Technology

Technical substitute

Binary

Environmental Common

Case Component

SESMAD

Technology

Technology role

Categorical

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Technology

Toxicity

Ordinal

Pollutant

Case Component

SESMAD

Biophysical

Transaction costs

Ordinal

Governance System

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

Type of formal governance

Categorical

Formal System

Case Component

SESMAD, Fiji fisheries

Basic

User group external support

Binary

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Institutions

User group well-being change

Ordinal

Actor

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Outcomes

User-commons proximity

Binary

Local Resource User Group

Component Interaction

SESMAD

Incentives

NameData TypeComponent TypeAttachmentSectorTheme