• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat is the average economic status of the group? (Does not refer to variation within the group – see ActorEconomicHeterogeneity).
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceThe wealth of an actor group is expected to influence their level of dependence on the resource and their potential for innovation and developing alternatives. The environmental U-shaped Kuznets curve depicts how rising incomes are associated with environmental degradation up to a point at which environmental outcomes improve (Arrow et al. 1995; Cinner et al. 2009). This variable allows this theory to be tested for large-scale SES.
Definition

"The economic status of a group of actors refers to their capital and financial assets. A group's average economic status can affect their collective willingness to invest in action for resource and environmental sustainability. Low: This actor group struggles to meet its basic needs or to remain economically viable. An example would be a group of resource users who are at or below a subsistence resource use level. Medium: This group can meet basic needs but it cannot go well beyond that. Alternatively, this group contains a mixture of low and high status. High: The level of wealth of this actor group goes well beyond that required to meet its basic needs and maintain economic viability."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Forest transition theoryIncreasing
Marginalization and degradationLow
Environmental kuznets curveIncreasing
Poverty and resource degradationLow

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaHigh (3)This represents a group of highly profitable industries. That said, many of the employees of the companies remained quite poor.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District Governments ?
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Most would probably be thought of as having a medium economic status in California but globally high status. PIs make probably around 100,000/year (give or take).
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)Generally speaking, members of this community were poor, having few possessions and limited opportunities to participate in economic activities apart from swidden agriculture & hunting & gathering.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Medium (2)Although the leaders of the government were very wealthy, most government employees were not.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursMedium (2)These people are local elites - wealthy by the standards of local areas, but not by national or global standards.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)These are poor forest dependent people.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Medium (2)While some are wealthy, most would probably be thought of as having a medium economic status.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINANot Applicable
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia unknown?
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaHigh (3)The leaders of these companies are making lots of money - their employees are not necessarily wealthy, but the wealth of the leaders is what enables them to be well connected.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Medium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HMissing
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)Many ODS industrial producers are large multinational corporations
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatNot Applicable
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsHigh (3)The industry enjoyed economic growth and international expansion
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)Managers are middle to upper-middle income.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)Managers are middle to upper-middle income.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersHigh (3)Citizens of a high-income country
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Medium (2)
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersHigh (3)Based upon the US, Canada and Japan (>95% of reported catches)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)Citizens of a high-income country
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenMedium (2)Coded as medium - as some of the fishers at the start of the time period were teachers and politicans who took time off to come and fish to make money (Alex Hearn pers comm), but there were undoubtedly poor groups of people who also come to make money, with many fishers entereing debt from buying boats and equipment - 1996 estimate that 37% of fisher income used to repay such debts (Shepherd et al., 2004)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersHigh (3)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Medium (2)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesHigh (3)Managers tend to be middle-class, globally this would be ranked as High. An entry level position can make $58,562.00 - $76,131.00 / Per Year in CDFW (USAJobs.gov). Council members can make around $64,000 / Per Year or more (Indeed.com)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersMedium (2)includes government organisations, but coded as medium as also includes representatives from fishers and tourism
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)variation from high end tourism to local
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)variation from high end tourism to local
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)Very high economic status compared to rest of the world. Program analyst makes $90,823.00 - $139,523.00 / Per Year (USAJobs.gov)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)Managers tend to be middle-class, globally this would be ranked as High.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Includes government organisations
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau are generally a marginalised group. Characterized by high infant mortality, low levels of formal educational achievement, and other indicators of poverty (Chou 1997).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau are generally a marginalised group. Characterized by high infant mortality, low levels of formal educational achievement, and other indicators of poverty (Chou 1997).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Federal and state government organizations that make up the co-trusteeship
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersMedium (2)includes government organisations, but coded as medium as also includes representatives from fishers and tourism (who have been coded as medium)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Bajau are generally a marginalised group. Characterized by high infant mortality, low levels of formal educational achievement, and other indicators of poverty (Chou 1997).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersHigh (3)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Government organisations
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersMedium (2)includes government organisations, but coded as medium as also includes representatives from fishers and tourism (who have been coded as medium)
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Managers tend to be middle-class, globally this would be ranked as High.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AMissing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersMedium (2)Mix of local communities, NGOs and government - so overall coded as medium
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersHigh (3)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)Artisanal fishers tend to have low economic status in general.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Profitable fishery, and the price of southern bluefin tuna has been increasing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)International organisation with ~85% Ecuadorian staff.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINANot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)In general toothfish fishers would be considered to have a high economic status.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionHigh (3)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenHigh (3)Most would probably be thought of as having a medium economic status, but globally would be considered high.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersHigh (3)Citizens of a high-income country
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersHigh (3)The average FIG employee has a per capita income above the median, with the 7th highest average of 20 different sectors. Make decent living, and provided housing.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)No data specifically on this. ‘Expedition Cruise’ operators (smaller) are likely Moderate, while ‘Overseas Cruise’ operators (larger) are likely High.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersHigh (3)Most would probably be thought of as having a medium economic status, but globally would be a high economic status.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)Artisanal fishers tend to have low economic status in general.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionHigh (3)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)The majority of boats operate with a profit, but few boats make enormous profits (Taylor-Moore 2000).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Profitable fishery, and the price of southern bluefin tuna has been increasing
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)International organisation with ~85% Ecuadorian staff.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)No data specifically on this. ‘Expedition Cruise’ operators (smaller) are likely Moderate, while ‘Overseas Cruise’ operators (larger) are likely High.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)Live in a developed economy
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersMedium (2)Difficult to obtain numbers for the group. These fishers are likely able to meet comfortably meet their basic needs, but are not getting rich.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)International organisation with ~85% Ecuadorian staff.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GMissing
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersHigh (3)International researchers
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersNot Applicable
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenHigh (3)Can go beyond basic needs.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersHigh (3)All make ends meet and some.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)Falkland Island business men: Second highest income next to technical/scientific industry. Officers: okay. Crew: low but paid.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)New Zealand ensures minimum wage, can meet basic needs.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersHigh (3)While not considered wealthy compared to other Californians, are middle-class and go beyond basic needs.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)Profitable fishery, and the price of southern bluefin tuna has been increasing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)