|Variable Component Type||Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||Are there well-articulated markets for ecosystem services (specifically regulating and cultural services, but not provisioning services, which are covered by the variable "markets") produced by this resource?|
|Importance||Markets for ecosystem services are becoming more popular as instruments to allocate goods and services in return for payment.|
Markets represent a subset of the many institutional arrangements that have developed over time for transferring rights. The fundamental characteristic of this subset is that it specializes in the exchange of property rights through mechanisms that require the mutual consent of parties involved (markets don’t give “orders”) and that coordinate the decentralized decisions made by agents using the information provided through the price system” (Menard 2005).
Ecosystem services are the benefits people derive from nature. This variable is in regards to regulating and cultural services, which are defined below:
Regulating services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, including (1) Air quality maintenance. Ecosystems both contribute chemicals to and extract chemicals from the atmosphere, influencing many aspects of air quality. Climate regulation. Ecosystems influence climate both locally and globally. For example, at a local scale, changes in land cover can affect both temperature and precipitation. At the global scale, ecosystems play an important role in climate by either sequestering or emitting greenhouse gases. (2) Water regulation. The timing and magnitude of runoff, flooding, and aquifer recharge can be strongly influenced by changes in land cover, including, in particular, alterations that change the water storage potential of the system, such as the conversion of wetlands or the replacement of forests with croplands or croplands with urban areas. (3) Erosion control. Vegetative cover plays an important role in soil retention and the prevention of landslides. (4) Water purification and waste treatment. Ecosystems can be a source of impurities in fresh water but also can help to filter out and decompose organic wastes introduced into inland waters and coastal and marine ecosystems. (5) Regulation of human diseases. Changes in ecosystems can directly change the abundance of human pathogens, such as cholera, and can alter the abundance of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes. (6) Biological control. Ecosystem changes affect the prevalence of crop and livestock pests and diseases. Pollination. Ecosystem changes affect the distribution, abundance, and effectiveness of pollinators. (7) Storm protection. The presence of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs can dramatically reduce the damage caused by hurricanes or large waves."
Cultural services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including: (1) Cultural diversity. The diversity of ecosystems is one factor influencing the diversity of cultures. (2) Spiritual and religious values. Many religions attach spiritual and religious values to ecosystems or their components. (30 Knowledge systems (traditional and formal). Ecosystems influence the types of knowledge systems developed by different cultures. Educational values. Ecosystems and their components and processes provide the basis for both formal and informal education in many societies. (4) Inspiration. Ecosystems provide a rich source of inspiration for art, folklore, national symbols, architecture, and advertising. (5) Aesthetic values. Many people find beauty or aesthetic value in various aspects of ecosystems, as reflected in the support for parks, scenic drives, and the selection of housing locations. (6) Social relations. Ecosystems influence the types of social relations that are established in particular cultures. Fishing societies, for example, differ in many respects in their social relations from nomadic herding or agricultural societies. (7) Sense of place. Many people value the sense of place that is associated with recognized features of their environment, including aspects of the ecosystem. (8) Cultural heritage values. Many societies place high value on the maintenance of either historically important landscapes (cultural landscapes) or culturally significant species. (9) Recreation and ecotourism. People often choose where to spend their leisure time based in part on the characteristics of the natural or cultivated landscapes in a particular area."
|Case||Interaction Type||Component||Value Used||Explanation|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||No||There were not ecosystem service markets.|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||No||For most of this period, there were no markets for ecosystem services. In 2011 Indonesia signed an agreement with Norway to halt new forest concessions in exchange for money from Norway (see Edwards, Laurance & Koh, 2012; Sloan, Edwards & Laurance 2012, and others). This is sort of like a market, but is not a "well articulated market".|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Yes|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve||Biophysical||Galapagos Sea Cucumber|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||No|
|Community D (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community D Fish Resources||No|
|Community G (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community G Fish Resources||No|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Not Applicable|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||No|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||Yes||Fish markets for provisioning services. No markets for regulating services.|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||Yes||Tourism could be considered a cultural ecosystem service|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||Yes||Markets for provisioning services - fish. As well as for reef-based tourism of which fish play a part.|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sea Cucumber||No||Sea cucmbers are important for nutrient cycling - but there is no articulated market for this|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi fish spawning||Yes||There are markets for provisioning services - even if extraction of fish from spawning aggregations is prohibited. Tourism markets not focused on these fish.|
|Community H (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community H Fish Resources||No|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||Yes||For provisioning services|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||No|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||No|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Lobster Fishery||Not Applicable|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi Green Turtle||Yes||There are well-articulated cultural services markets in tourism - although the Bajau are not involved. There are no markets for other ES, like PES / REDD.|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Green Turtle||Yes||There are well-articulated cultural services markets in tourism|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||No||Tourism exists, but not well articulated for rocky shores habitat. The value of the coastal trail is uncertain.|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Trophic Density||No||Instrinsic value of area and preservation of cultural sites important to native Hawaiians, but no trading|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Humpback Whale||Yes||Whale watching has become a lucrative business in this area.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi coral cover||Not Applicable|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Yes||A substantial Sea Lion tourist industry has developed|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sharks||Yes||well articulated tourism market|
|Community A (Fiji fisheries)||Governance||Community A Fish Resources||No|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Coral Cover||Yes||Tourism|
|Community E (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community E Fish Resources||No|
|Community C (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community C Fish Resources||No|
|Community F (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community F Fish Resources||No|
|Community B (Fiji Fisheries)||Governance||Community B Fish Resources||No|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Green Turtle||Yes||Tourism|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Reef Fish||No|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Shrimp||No|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Groundfish Habitat||Yes||While there are provisioning services, no regulating service markets. However, groundfish habitat provides a cultural service market that is well defined by the tourism SCUBA industry.|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||Yes||There is a well-articulated cultural services market in tourism for whale watching from the cliffs at the Head of Bight. This whale watching location is not in the GABMP (CW) but the whales pass through the Park to reach the calving grounds below the cliffs at the Head of Bight.|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||No|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||Yes||Tourism.|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Kittiwake||Yes||The tourism market for viewing wildlife is quite developed on Svalbard.|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR Green Turtle||Yes||The GBR is well-recognized internationally as a great tourist destination, including turtle watching.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||King Penguin||Yes||Tourism could be considered a cultural ecosystem service.|
|Falkland Islands squid||Governance||Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||No||Only provisioning services|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih coral cover||Not Applicable|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower coral reefs||Not Applicable|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Polar Bear||Yes||The tourism market for appreciating/viewing polar bears is quite developed on Svalbard.|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih target fish||No|
|New Zealand squid||Governance||Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||No||No other services other than provisioning|
|California squid||Governance||California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||No||no|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||No regulating or cultural services produced by the resource.|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower groupers||Missing||NO DATA|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.