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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAre there well-articulated markets for ecosystem services (specifically regulating and cultural services, but not provisioning services, which are covered by the variable "markets") produced by this resource?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceMarkets for ecosystem services are becoming more popular as instruments to allocate goods and services in return for payment.
Definition

Markets represent a subset of the many institutional arrangements that have developed over time for transferring rights. The fundamental characteristic of this subset is that it specializes in the exchange of property rights through mechanisms that require the mutual consent of parties involved (markets don’t give “orders”) and that coordinate the decentralized decisions made by agents using the information provided through the price system” (Menard 2005).

Ecosystem services are the benefits people derive from nature. This variable is in regards to regulating and cultural services, which are defined below:

Regulating services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, including (1) Air quality maintenance. Ecosystems both contribute chemicals to and extract chemicals from the atmosphere, influencing many aspects of air quality. Climate regulation. Ecosystems influence climate both locally and globally. For example, at a local scale, changes in land cover can affect both temperature and precipitation. At the global scale, ecosystems play an important role in climate by either sequestering or emitting greenhouse gases. (2) Water regulation. The timing and magnitude of runoff, flooding, and aquifer recharge can be strongly influenced by changes in land cover, including, in particular, alterations that change the water storage potential of the system, such as the conversion of wetlands or the replacement of forests with croplands or croplands with urban areas. (3) Erosion control. Vegetative cover plays an important role in soil retention and the prevention of landslides. (4) Water purification and waste treatment. Ecosystems can be a source of impurities in fresh water but also can help to filter out and decompose organic wastes introduced into inland waters and coastal and marine ecosystems. (5) Regulation of human diseases. Changes in ecosystems can directly change the abundance of human pathogens, such as cholera, and can alter the abundance of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes. (6) Biological control. Ecosystem changes affect the prevalence of crop and livestock pests and diseases. Pollination. Ecosystem changes affect the distribution, abundance, and effectiveness of pollinators. (7) Storm protection. The presence of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs can dramatically reduce the damage caused by hurricanes or large waves."

Cultural services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as "the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including: (1) Cultural diversity. The diversity of ecosystems is one factor influencing the diversity of cultures. (2) Spiritual and religious values. Many religions attach spiritual and religious values to ecosystems or their components. (30 Knowledge systems (traditional and formal). Ecosystems influence the types of knowledge systems developed by different cultures. Educational values. Ecosystems and their components and processes provide the basis for both formal and informal education in many societies. (4) Inspiration. Ecosystems provide a rich source of inspiration for art, folklore, national symbols, architecture, and advertising. (5) Aesthetic values. Many people find beauty or aesthetic value in various aspects of ecosystems, as reflected in the support for parks, scenic drives, and the selection of housing locations. (6) Social relations. Ecosystems influence the types of social relations that are established in particular cultures. Fishing societies, for example, differ in many respects in their social relations from nomadic herding or agricultural societies. (7) Sense of place. Many people value the sense of place that is associated with recognized features of their environment, including aspects of the ecosystem.  (8) Cultural heritage values. Many societies place high value on the maintenance of either historically important landscapes (cultural landscapes) or culturally significant species. (9) Recreation and ecotourism. People often choose where to spend their leisure time based in part on the characteristics of the natural or cultivated landscapes in a particular area."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaNoThere were not ecosystem service markets.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaNoFor most of this period, there were no markets for ecosystem services. In 2011 Indonesia signed an agreement with Norway to halt new forest concessions in exchange for money from Norway (see Edwards, Laurance & Koh, 2012; Sloan, Edwards & Laurance 2012, and others). This is sort of like a market, but is not a "well articulated market".
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Yes
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaNo
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesNo
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesNo
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishYesFish markets for provisioning services. No markets for regulating services.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverYesTourism could be considered a cultural ecosystem service
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishYesMarkets for provisioning services - fish. As well as for reef-based tourism of which fish play a part.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberNoSea cucmbers are important for nutrient cycling - but there is no articulated market for this
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningYesThere are markets for provisioning services - even if extraction of fish from spawning aggregations is prohibited. Tourism markets not focused on these fish.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesNo
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish YesFor provisioning services
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNo
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNo
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleYesThere are well-articulated cultural services markets in tourism - although the Bajau are not involved. There are no markets for other ES, like PES / REDD.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleYesThere are well-articulated cultural services markets in tourism
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthNoTourism exists, but not well articulated for rocky shores habitat. The value of the coastal trail is uncertain.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNoInstrinsic value of area and preservation of cultural sites important to native Hawaiians, but no trading
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleYesWhale watching has become a lucrative business in this area.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionYesA substantial Sea Lion tourist industry has developed
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksYeswell articulated tourism market
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverYesTourism
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesNo
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesNo
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesNo
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish ResourcesNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleYesTourism
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish No
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpNo
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatYesWhile there are provisioning services, no regulating service markets. However, groundfish habitat provides a cultural service market that is well defined by the tourism SCUBA industry.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleYesThere is a well-articulated cultural services market in tourism for whale watching from the cliffs at the Head of Bight. This whale watching location is not in the GABMP (CW) but the whales pass through the Park to reach the calving grounds below the cliffs at the Head of Bight.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaNo
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossYesTourism.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeYesThe tourism market for viewing wildlife is quite developed on Svalbard.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleYesThe GBR is well-recognized internationally as a great tourist destination, including turtle watching.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinYesTourism could be considered a cultural ecosystem service.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)NoOnly provisioning services
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearYesThe tourism market for appreciating/viewing polar bears is quite developed on Svalbard.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishNo
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)NoNo other services other than provisioning
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Nono
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish  No regulating or cultural services produced by the resource.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMissingNO DATA