• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeText
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeContext (learn about themes)
QuestionPlease name and describe the major threats that are affecting this MPA.
Select Options
ImportanceThe governance activities within a social-ecological system can be undermined by threats and disturbances that occur.

A threat is a process/event that has the potential to severely damage an important function of a system.

SectorsMarine protected areas

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Wakatobi National Park 2008-currentOver-fishing; illegal fishingThe main threats are over-fishing, and the use of destructive fishing methods - by local users. Illegal fishing, e.g. for the live reef fish trade, is an issue, but difficult to discern the level - international users.
NWHI Monument Act 2006marine debris; climate change;
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActClimate change; pollution; tourism disturbanceIn polar regions such as Svalbard, the main current threats are due from pollution and climate change. Historically, whaling was presented considerable threat to belugas, but it has been banned in Svalbard since 1961. Due to global circulation patterns, polar regions have a disproportionately high pollution load. Although difficult to quantify, pollution burdens are thought to reduce fitness. Tourism can be a threat at a variety of scales- this is managed and monitored on Svalbard, but more site-specific data is needed (Hagan et al 2012).
Galapagos Governance System 1998-currentillegal fishing; unsustainable tourism; pollution; invasive species; climate changeUnsustainable tourism and the associated waste management and pollution is a growing problem. As is the increasing risk of more invasive species (ballast waters, and increasing movmenet of ships and boats between areas). Many of the species are endemic and highly sensitive to climatic events - e.g. Galapagos penguin, where past strong El Niño events have caused mortalities of up to 77%, with dramatic declines of prey species and reduced breeding success.
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanThe only major threat potentially affecting resources f
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingOveruse from SCUBA diving; Coral bleaching; pollution; waste management
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaOverfishing. Pollution.
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilOver-harvesting of mangrove reserouces and erosionOver-harvesting mangrove crab and wood. Erosion from development and sea-level rise
Raja Ampat Governance SystemOverfishing/destructive fishing; land-based activities-Over fishing, destructive fishing -Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining -Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation -Poorly planned development -Transmigration from other provinces (Intro to TelCen+BHS powerpoint)
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System Climate change, ocean noise, coastal erosion, fishing, oil spills, cruise ships, introduced species, landslides and debris, marine debris, dredging, motorized personal watercraft, whale strikes, dumping, pollution, shipwrecks, poaching.Climate change, ocean noise, coastal erosion, fishing, oil spills, cruise ships, introduced species, landslides and debris, marine debris, dredging, motorized personal watercraft, whale strikes, dumping, pollution, shipwrecks, poaching.
Seaflower MPA Act 2005MissingNO DATA
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Petroleum exploration and extraction; Commercial fishing; Climate changePetroleum exploration and extraction - chemical and acoustic pollution, oil spills, acoustic, habitat destruction Commercial fishing - overfishing, habitat destruction, entangled of marine animals, ship strikes, by-catch Climate change - changes to productivity, climate and oceanographic processes
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanFishingAccording to the HIMI Marine Reserve Proposal (2002), long-term commercial fishing is the main potential threat to the conservation values of the HIMI region. Other human activities, such as tourism, science or other logistical operations, could also threaten the area, but are a higher risk to the land rather than the ocean parts. Also, fishing is the only activity that takes place regularly (every year); all other human-based activities are intermittent. Environmental threats include volcanism (land) and climate change (land and ocean).
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNot Applicable
Cenderwasih governance systemOverfishing and destructuve fishing; land-based activitiesMajor Threats to Cendrawasih: reef/coral damage, overfishing, potential coastal development, boundary shuffling, recent political autonomy, weak fisheries policy & scientific knowledge. Threats to the Bird's Head area: Over fishing, destructive fishing Land-based activities: Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining; Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation; Poorly planned development; Transmigration from other provinces