|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Context (learn about themes)|
|Question||Please name and describe the major threats that are affecting this MPA.|
|Importance||The governance activities within a social-ecological system can be undermined by threats and disturbances that occur.|
A threat is a process/event that has the potential to severely damage an important function of a system.
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||Over-fishing; illegal fishing||The main threats are over-fishing, and the use of destructive fishing methods - by local users. Illegal fishing, e.g. for the live reef fish trade, is an issue, but difficult to discern the level - international users.|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||marine debris; climate change;|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||Climate change, ocean noise, coastal erosion, fishing, oil spills, cruise ships, introduced species, landslides and debris, marine debris, dredging, motorized personal watercraft, whale strikes, dumping, pollution, shipwrecks, poaching.||Climate change, ocean noise, coastal erosion, fishing, oil spills, cruise ships, introduced species, landslides and debris, marine debris, dredging, motorized personal watercraft, whale strikes, dumping, pollution, shipwrecks, poaching.|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||Climate change; pollution; tourism disturbance||In polar regions such as Svalbard, the main current threats are due from pollution and climate change. Historically, whaling was presented considerable threat to belugas, but it has been banned in Svalbard since 1961. Due to global circulation patterns, polar regions have a disproportionately high pollution load. Although difficult to quantify, pollution burdens are thought to reduce fitness. Tourism can be a threat at a variety of scales- this is managed and monitored on Svalbard, but more site-specific data is needed (Hagan et al 2012).|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||illegal fishing; unsustainable tourism; pollution; invasive species; climate change||Unsustainable tourism and the associated waste management and pollution is a growing problem. As is the increasing risk of more invasive species (ballast waters, and increasing movmenet of ships and boats between areas). Many of the species are endemic and highly sensitive to climatic events - e.g. Galapagos penguin, where past strong El Niño events have caused mortalities of up to 77%, with dramatic declines of prey species and reduced breeding success.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||The only major threat potentially affecting resources f|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||Fishing||According to the HIMI Marine Reserve Proposal (2002), long-term commercial fishing is the main potential threat to the conservation values of the HIMI region. Other human activities, such as tourism, science or other logistical operations, could also threaten the area, but are a higher risk to the land rather than the ocean parts. Also, fishing is the only activity that takes place regularly (every year); all other human-based activities are intermittent. Environmental threats include volcanism (land) and climate change (land and ocean).|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||Overuse from SCUBA diving; Coral bleaching; pollution; waste management|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||Overfishing. Pollution.|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||Over-harvesting of mangrove reserouces and erosion||Over-harvesting mangrove crab and wood. Erosion from development and sea-level rise|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||Overfishing/destructive fishing; land-based activities||-Over fishing, destructive fishing -Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining -Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation -Poorly planned development -Transmigration from other provinces (Intro to TelCen+BHS powerpoint)|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||Missing||NO DATA|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||Petroleum exploration and extraction; Commercial fishing; Climate change||Petroleum exploration and extraction - chemical and acoustic pollution, oil spills, acoustic, habitat destruction Commercial fishing - overfishing, habitat destruction, entangled of marine animals, ship strikes, by-catch Climate change - changes to productivity, climate and oceanographic processes|
|Cenderwasih governance system||Overfishing and destructuve fishing; land-based activities||Major Threats to Cendrawasih: reef/coral damage, overfishing, potential coastal development, boundary shuffling, recent political autonomy, weak fisheries policy & scientific knowledge. Threats to the Bird's Head area: Over fishing, destructive fishing Land-based activities: Illegal logging, (Il)legal mining; Oil and Gas exploration, exploitation; Poorly planned development; Transmigration from other provinces|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.