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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDo higher levels of governance in this system provide this actor group incentives to over-appropriate or over-emit? For example, through subsidizing fishing fleets or agriculture crops?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThere are various studies that addressed the negative aspects of government-based subsidies on the appropriation or emission of the resource. For example, most recent estimates of the overall fisheries subsidies indicate that in 2000 they exceeded USD 30 billion (Sumaila and Pauly 2006, Sumaila et al. 2010). Most of those, according to the authors, led to overcapacity and ultimately resulted in enhancing and/or maintaining unsustainable rates of resource exploitation. Within the USA agricultural sector, the federal government gave out USD 2.4 billion of fuel subsidies in 2004 (OECD 2005, cited in Sumaila et al. 2008).
Definition

A perverse incentive is a situation in which a commons user is given incentives with the intention of improving a social or environmental condition, and this leads to the opposite result, in which incentives to deteriorate the commons are exacerbated.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Bans and perverse incentivesYes
Subsidies and perverse incentivesYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HNo
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNo
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersYes
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNo
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersNoThe Falkland Islands government does not, but the Spanish government provides incentives.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNo
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenNoNo. In fact the conservation measures/regulations to sea cucumbers ironically prolonged the fishery so it became depleted with many fishers becoming permanent residents of the Galapagos, rather than fishing the sea cucumber out and then moving on to somewhere else allowing stocks to recover (as happened on mainland Ecuador) - Graham Edgar pers comm.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNo
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers 
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BNo
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNo
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ANo
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNo
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNo
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNo
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoNot directly in relation to southern right whales, but Australian fishing fleets are subsidized
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoAlthough fishing fleets in Australia are subsidized by the Australian government; this does not create a perverse incentive for the deliberate or incidental harvest of light mantled albatross.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoThere are strict quota limits. Although Australian fishing fleets are subsidized
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoAlthough fishing fleets are subsidized in Australia (see e.g., Sumaila et al. 2008) there is no evidence that this would be considered a perverse incentive in this fishery.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoAlthough fishing fleets are subsidized in Australia there is no evidence that this would be considered a perverse incentive for this particular fishery.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ENo
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GNo
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenNo
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersNoNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNo
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoThere are strict quota limits. Although Australian fishing fleets are subsidized
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoAlthough fishing fleets in Australia are subsidized by the Australian government; this does not create a perverse incentive for the deliberate or incidental harvest of light mantled albatross.