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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeFormal System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionIs/are the policy/ies regarding this commons use and/or management set in accordance with the current scientific consensus?
Select Options1 No, 2 Somewhat, 3 Yes
Unit
Role
ImportanceThe sustainable use of the resource depends on maintaining the harvest at the optimum levels that does not compromise the capacity of the resource to replenish itself (Hilborn et al. 1995, Olmsted and Alvarez-Buylla 1995). The analyses of the state of the resource, its biomass, and its replenishment rates have been largely done by the scientific community. The availability of these findings to decision makers when designing policies can contribute to the effectiveness of the policies if the science is relevant and accurately represents SES dynamics.
Definition

The match of policy and scientific consensus in the establishment of usage/control of a commons and related activities

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanYes (3)
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998No (1)scientific information did not play an important role in this governance system.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012No (1)Policy-setting does not seem to be in any way science based for this system.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Missing
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceMontreal ProtocolYes (3)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemSomewhat (2)Scientific assessments are used to make recommendations for Eastern ABFT withdrawals. However, final decisions are made in a political process, and on several occasions this political process has disregarded recommendations. There are also questions about the reliability of scientific knowledge concerning Eastern ABFT.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemSomewhat (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Somewhat (2)The initial zoning scheme was influenced by some science - double-check this.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine Chemicals ConventionYes (3)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Yes (3)Management is required to reflect best available science.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentYes (3)The rezoning of the GBR marine park was guided by the best available science, and is heralded as the best implementation of systematic conservation planning
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemSomewhat (2)Scientific assessments are used to make recommendations for Western ABFT withdrawals. However, final decisions are made in a political process, and on several occasions this political process has disregarded recommendations. There are also questions about the reliability of scientific knowledge concerning Western ABFT.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentYes (3)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Yes (3)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentYes (3)Widespread knowledge of the destructive impacts of blast and poison (cyanide & local root) on coral reefs has informed the prohibition of these gears.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Yes (3)Lobster fishery is closed.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentYes (3)Follows consensus or general good practice related to protecting nesting beaches. However, no-takes not designed to protect species with wide home ranges.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentYes (3)Knowledge of where fish spawn, and knowledge of vulnerability of spawning fish to over-exploitation.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Yes (3)the whole area is no take
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Yes (3)pristine area and all no take
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Yes (3)Management is required to reflect best available science.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanYes (3)The bycatch mitigation measures are compatible with best practices for seabird bycatch mitigation
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Yes (3)Policies are implemented on the basis of the best available science
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Yes (3)The light mantled albatross is classified as near threatened, requiring conservation measures throughout their range. Protection of breeding sites and threats from invasive species is an important component that might affect their survival
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012No (1)Gillnetting has been formally highlighted as a key threat to the conservation of Australian sea lions in 2005 (see Hamer et al. 2011) and is still allowed across most of the GABMP for half the year.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemYes (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentYes (3)Ban on industrial fishing, and shark fishing, transport, and sale of all sharks and their products has been banned in accordance with current scientific consensus (and international agreements, e.g. CITES)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemYes (3)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemYes (3)Yes - MPAs are a network across the region. Although primary aim is local food security
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActYes (3)Policy makes recognized the unique and fragile aspects of the polar landscapes described by science and have created fairly strict regulations in accordance.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Yes (3)Management is required to reflect the best available science.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActYes (3)There is ongoing monitoring to estimate the biomass of the shrimp stock, and the fishing effort is regulated accordingly.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanYes (3)Policies incorporate the best available science. Science conducted for management purposes are peer-reviewed.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)Yes (3)In-season depletion models project biomass and take into consideration a number of factors. Managers use best available science.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanYes (3)The light mantled albatross are considered near threatened by the IUCN and protected under the agreement on the conservation of albatross and petrels. Accordingly full protection is warranted as are investments in recovery.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentYes (3)In line with international treaties and consensus that turtle nesting beaches should be protected.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanYes (3)HIMI toothfish are managed according to the best available science, however scientists are still in the process of understanding their life history, population structure and distribution in the HIMI region.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanYes (3)The seabird bycatch mitigation measures (as prescribed by CCAMLR and implemented by the AFMA) are absolutely in accordance with the current scientific consensus, in fact, they are considered perhaps the best example of seabird mitigation techniques (see e.g., Croxall 2008).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemYes (3)Large area encompassing a variety of habitats. Spawning aggregations protected. In 2008 an MoU was signed by WWF-Indonesia and State Univeristy of Papua to enhance research and area development in Cendrawasih Bay National Park. http://www.wwf.or.id/en/about_wwf/whatwedo/marine_species/where_we_work/core_site/cendrawasih/
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanYes (3)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentYes (3)The locations of important nesting and foraging sites were actively considered in the re-zoning, and the ban on turtle hunting is considered necessary.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Somewhat (2)Management is required to reflect the best available science, however SBT quotas are influenced by a range of political processes from numerous nations.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanYes (3)Policies are based on the best available science and in accordance with the current scientific consensus.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNo (1)The MPA does not protect important habitat for toothfish, and according to existing information is not used extensively by toothfish.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanYes (3)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Somewhat (2)Although the Nature Reserve provides some protection to Toothfish it was not explicitly designed for this purpose.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005MissingNO DATA
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentSomewhat (2)At the start of the time period being coded the quota set was higher than scientific consensus - the quota was determined through negotiations among sector representatives in the Participatory Management Board, and there were protests when quotas were not satisfactory to fishermen. At the end of the time period being coded, the closed fishery at catch limits are being adhered to - so coded as 'somewhat'
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActYes (3)Breeding colonies protected and populations are monitored annually
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemYes (3)Large area encompassing a variety of habitats. Spawning aggregations protected. In 2008 an MoU was signed by WWF-Indonesia and State Univeristy of Papua to enhance research and area development in Cendrawasih Bay National Park. http://www.wwf.or.id/en/about_wwf/whatwedo/marine_species/where_we_work/core_site/cendrawasih/
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemYes (3)A lot of scientific gaps regarding squid, but incorporate any information available. With only four million people, and the fourth largest EEZ in the world, New Zealand simply can’t afford the science needed to manage all fisheries exactly at their target level. So the government prioritises spending on fisheries data collection, monitoring and stock assessment to focus on stocks with the highest landings or greatest importance, or those considered most at risk of being unsustainable. Where there is little information, it is hard to gauge how close a stock is to its target level. So the Government must act cautiously, and set the catch at what it thinks is a safe level. Fisheries managers advise the Government, based on the results of Science and Monitoring programmes. Scientists are often contracted out. Industry pays for most scientific efforts.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanYes (3)Heavily tied to science. At the core of the MLMA is the principle of basing decisions on sound science and other useful information. The MLMA also calls for basing decisions on the best available scientific information as well as other information that the Department and the Commission possess. Work with scientists in the area.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSomewhat (2)The MPA closed some areas that are important to the life history for toothfish, particularly juvenile grounds. Yet, the MPA was designed when toothfish fishing was exclusively trawling and prior to the discovery of toothfish spawning grounds in the HIMI EEZ (see e.g., Welsford et al. 2012). Further the MPA had broader goals beyond protecting toothfish (e.g., protecting the World Heritage and cultural values of the HIMI area, unique benthic and pelagic environments, representative marine habitats, and foraging areas for land-based predators).