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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeHeterogeneity (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHow heterogeneous are the members of this actor group in economic terms (wealth, income)?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThe effect of heterogeneity - including differences in assets or wealth – on the capacity of individuals to self-organise is highly contested (Varughese and Ostrom 2001). This variable allows us to test the importance of economic heterogeneity within actor groups on governance outcomes. It complements the variables ActorPoliticalHeterogeneity and ActorCulturalHeterogeneity.
Definition

"Economic heterogeneity refers to differences in capital assets, livelihoods, income and other economic endowments. These differences can make it more or less difficult for people to communicate, trust and co-operate with each-other. Low: There is little heterogeneity in the economic status of the members of these groups. Analogous to a Gini coefficient less than 0.3 Medium: Moderate economic heterogeneity. There is a distinguishable upper class, but this does not have a great majority of the available wealth. Analogous to a Gini coefficient between 0.3 and 0.5 High: There is enough heterogeneity that there are distinguishable subgroups with substantial differences in their economic endowments. A very small percentage of the members have a majority of the available wealth. Analogous to a Gini coefficient greater than 0.5"

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Economic heterogeneity and collective actionHigh

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Varughese, G., Ostrom, E., 2001. The Contested Role of Heterogeneity in Collective Action: Some Evidence from Community Forestry in Nepal. World Development 29, 747–765. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00012-2


Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Generally, the socio-economic status of recreational fishers is homogeneous
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Comparatively the Bajau are a homogenous group, but there are differences in assets within communities. Coded as low as these differences are probably not as explicit as would be seen in a less marginalised group.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Comparatively the Bajau are a homogenous group, but there are differences in assets within communities. Coded as low as these differences are probably not as explicit as would be seen in a less marginalised group.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researcher's economic status varies somewhat based on the level of their position and funding sources, but does not vary much.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researcher's economic status varies somewhat based on the level of their position and funding sources, but not by much.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Assume fairly similar
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismHigh (3)International liveaboards versus local home-stays
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Assume similar
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismHigh (3)There are quite likely substantial differences in wealth & income between ‘expedition’ cruise operators, where each boat holds < 200 people starts & ends in the main town of Longyearbyen, versus the ‘overseas’ cruise operators, where boats hold upwards of 2000 people, and visit Svalbard as part of a longer cruise.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)Some operations (e.g. live fish, trawlers) are much more lucrative than smaller-scale fishermen (e.g. hook and line)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Generally, the socio-economic status of recreational fishers is homogeneous
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Fishing businesses vary from small scale, employing a single operator in a single fishery, to vertically-integrated companies that employ a range of people in catching, processing, wholesaling and operating across a range of fisheries with some fishers holding multiple entitlements across fisheries. Net economic returns across fisheries have been reported to vary markedly from highly profitable, to marginal, or even negative (Australia 2010).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismMedium (2)There are quite likely substantial differences in economics between ‘expedition’ cruise operators, where each boat holds < 200 people starts & ends in the main town of Longyearbyen, versus the ‘overseas’ cruise operators, where boats hold upwards of 2000 people, and visit Svalbard as part of a longer cruise.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DMissing
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GMissing
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)My guess is low since all of them belong to the same sector within the same region - artisanal fishers
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)My guess is low since all of them belong to the same sector within the same region - artisanal fishers.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersMedium (2)Crew make far less, but make minimum wage.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)Captains are generally somewhat wealthy, while crew are taken care of but not as high of income.
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmersLow (1)Almost all farmers live in poor socioeconomic conditions.
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmers 
Caete-Teperacu Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Braganca, BrazilGovernanceAssociation of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in BrazilLow (1)
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceSCUBA diving businesses on Gili TrawanganMedium (2)
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceGili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)Low (1)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernanceIsla Caballo AMPR Costa RicaLow (1)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePalito-Montero AMPR Costa RicaLow (1)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePaquera-Tambor AMPR Costa RicaHigh (3)
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)Falkland Islanders are fairly wealthy. Spanish officers do well. Fishermen make perhaps more than they would in their own countries, but not super well. Crew not always treated humanely.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersLow (1)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenMedium (2)Some fishermen clearly have more assets and have been able to move into the tourism sector - costs minimum of US$50,000 to convert vessel - some have been able to afford this, indicating medium heterogeneity
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorHigh (3)Cruise ship tourism versus local guides etc - coded as high.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Comparatively the Bajau are a homogenous group, but there are differences in assets within communities. Coded as low as these differences are probably not as explicit as would be seen in a less marginalised group.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersHigh (3)Recreational users vary widey, from users shore based whale watching to sailboat owners privately observing.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AMissing
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Fishing businesses vary from small scale, employing a single operator in a single fishery, to vertically-integrated companies that employ a range of people in catching, processing, wholesaling and operating across a range of fisheries with some fishers holding multiple entitlements across fisheries. Net economic returns across fisheries can vary markedly from highly profitable, to marginal, or even negative.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersMedium (2)There was a restructuring of the shrimp fishing fleet before the snapshot, from numerous smaller vessels to fewer larger vessels. Therefore, the vessels used are similar, but fishermen included people from many countries around the world.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Fishing businesses vary from small scale, employing a single operator in a single fishery, to vertically-integrated companies that employ a range of people in catching, processing, wholesaling and operating across a range of fisheries with some fishers holding multiple entitlements across fisheries. Net economic returns across fisheries have been reported to vary markedly from highly profitable, to marginal, or even negative (Australia 2010).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)There are a variety of different types of commercial fishers (line, net, trawl, etc) which operate with different levels of profit. In addition, larger boats tend to be more profitable than smaller boats (Taylor-Moore 2000).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)