|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Biophysical (learn about themes)|
|Question||What are the direct threats to the migratory species in the area of this MPA (either prior to the MPA's creation, or as ongoing threats)?|
|Select Options||Resource competition, Bycatch, Habitat destruction, Other|
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]||Indigenous fishers can catch turtles for subsistence purposes. Commercial fishers target some species of shark. Shark are also killed in nets, on hooks or culled to reduce the threat they pose to humans swimming off beaches.|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]||Turtles can be caught for subsistence use by indigenous fishers Certain sharks are caught in the inshore net fishery. They are also killed as a result of measure to protect bathers (nets, baited hooks, culling).|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||["Resource competition"]||Biggest threat to turtles is probably egg consumption and bycatch - although this is apparently at low levels now. "Exceptionally high abundance of oceanic dolphin and whale species (5 species recorded: Beaked Whale, Pilot Whale, Sperm Whale, Bryde's Whale and Melonhead Whale) occurs in Wakatobi” - but couldn't find any detail on threats or evidence of any management activities for them - http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/8_Geographic%20Priorities%20for%20Marine%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Indonesia.pdf|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||["Resource competition", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]||Marine debris is a huge problem for wildlife in NWHI - much of the marine debris is in the form of derelict fishing nets, mostly trawl nets, from North Pacific fisheries. Plastic ingested by sea birds at sea and also fed to chicks at colonies (info from management plan). In the 1940s there was extensive habitat damage at the French Frigate Shoals rookery (Balazs, 1976; Balazs, 2004). Climate changes predictions - islands might be underwater in the future; increased el nino|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||["Resource competition", "Bycatch"]|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||["Habitat destruction", "Other"]||Oil spills, manufactured toxins (e.g. organochlorines; Kopec and Harvey 1995), poor water quality, ship strikes, ocean dumping (illegal), nonpoint source pollution (primarily agriculture, mining, septic system sources), marine debris, shipwrecks (particularly those leaking oil/other fuel) (FMPs, 2008)|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||[""]||In Svalbard (+ other polar regions) the main threats are from pollution and climate change. Due to global circulation patterns, polar regions have a disproportionately high pollution load - although difficult to quantify, pollution burdens are thought to reduce fitness – and have been attributed to the declines in some seabirds. Since the polar regions are likely to experience the greatest warming from climate change, shifting locations of fish species (prey) may be problematic. Historically, whaling was presented considerable threat, but it was banned in 1961. Tourism can be a threat at a variety of scales- this is managed and monitored on Svalbard, but more site-specific data is needed (Hagan et al 2012).|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||["Resource competition", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]||These threats impact not only migratory species but also local resources. They also represent the reasons MPA was establish in the first place.|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]||Tuna long-lining - prior to MPA establishment British and US whalers - mid-1800s Climate change and events - ongoing threats Tourist traffic is a current threat to green turtles (20% of nesting females have evidence of boat strike)|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]||The major threats to migratory species within the MPA are bycatch in the small toothfish fishery and potential habitat threats. Mineral and petroleum exploration are not currently allowed within the MPA; nor is the dumping of waste within the MPA. Only passive transit of vessels is allowed in the highly protected zone.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||["Habitat destruction", "Other"]||The direct threats to migratory species in the areas of the GABMP (CW) are: - Entanglement in marine debris or fishing and aquaculture equipment - Chemical Pollution - If petroleum exploration is initiated as planned for 2017 in the BPZ of the GABMP (CW), pollution from chemicals used in exploration drilling and petroleum production along with oil spills may present a threat to migratory species of the GAB. - Climate change - Modelling associated with global climate change predicts that there will be reduced productivity of Southern Ocean ecosystems and changes to climate and oceanographic processes may also lead to decreased productivity and different patterns of prey distribution and availability.There is also evidence that climate variability affects reproductive output in southern right whales calving in Australia (Leaper et al. 2006), with El Nino events being shown to lead to decreased calf production in a later year. A strong correlation has also been found between the number of right whale calves born and changes in sea-surface temperature, with calf output declining with an increase in water temperature (Leaper et al. 2006). - Physical injury and death from a ship strike - Acoustic pollution - from commercial and recreational vessel noise and seismic survey activity|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||["Resource competition", "Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]||The major threats to migratory flying seabirds that are managed under this governance system are being caught incidentally in longline operations and also to habitat loss from human (e.g., scientists, tourists) and natural (e.g., volcanic) distances. Antarctic fur seals and Southern elephant seals are also threatened by competition for food (Mackerel Icefish, also targeted commercially, see Green 2006). King Penguins at HIMI have also been shown to forage on Mackerel Icefish, particularly in the winter (Moore et al. 1998).|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Cenderwasih governance system||["Resource competition", "Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]||Major Threats to Cendrawasih turtles: predation (wild pigs, dogs, lizards), low hatching success, surrounding land use changes like mining and/or logging, lack of legal protection, overfishing, and reef damage. Climate change potential (Natural Capital Project)|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.