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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBiophysical (learn about themes)
QuestionWhat are the direct threats to the migratory species in the area of this MPA (either prior to the MPA's creation, or as ongoing threats)?
Select OptionsResource competition, Bycatch, Habitat destruction, Other
SectorsMarine protected areas

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]Indigenous fishers can catch turtles for subsistence purposes. Commercial fishers target some species of shark. Shark are also killed in nets, on hooks or culled to reduce the threat they pose to humans swimming off beaches.
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]Turtles can be caught for subsistence use by indigenous fishers Certain sharks are caught in the inshore net fishery. They are also killed as a result of measure to protect bathers (nets, baited hooks, culling).
Wakatobi National Park 2008-current["Resource competition"]Biggest threat to turtles is probably egg consumption and bycatch - although this is apparently at low levels now. "Exceptionally high abundance of oceanic dolphin and whale species (5 species recorded: Beaked Whale, Pilot Whale, Sperm Whale, Bryde's Whale and Melonhead Whale) occurs in Wakatobi” - but couldn't find any detail on threats or evidence of any management activities for them - http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.org/sites/default/files/resources/8_Geographic%20Priorities%20for%20Marine%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20in%20Indonesia.pdf
NWHI Monument Act 2006["Resource competition", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]Marine debris is a huge problem for wildlife in NWHI - much of the marine debris is in the form of derelict fishing nets, mostly trawl nets, from North Pacific fisheries. Plastic ingested by sea birds at sea and also fed to chicks at colonies (info from management plan). In the 1940s there was extensive habitat damage at the French Frigate Shoals rookery (Balazs, 1976; Balazs, 2004). Climate changes predictions - islands might be underwater in the future; increased el nino
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System ["Habitat destruction", "Other"]Oil spills, manufactured toxins (e.g. organochlorines; Kopec and Harvey 1995), poor water quality, ship strikes, ocean dumping (illegal), nonpoint source pollution (primarily agriculture, mining, septic system sources), marine debris, shipwrecks (particularly those leaking oil/other fuel) (FMPs, 2008)
Seaflower MPA Act 2005["Resource competition", "Habitat destruction", "Other"]These threats impact not only migratory species but also local resources. They also represent the reasons MPA was establish in the first place.
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingMissing
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaMissing
Raja Ampat Governance System["Resource competition", "Bycatch"]
Svalbard Environmental Protection Act[""]In Svalbard (+ other polar regions) the main threats are from pollution and climate change. Due to global circulation patterns, polar regions have a disproportionately high pollution load - although difficult to quantify, pollution burdens are thought to reduce fitness – and have been attributed to the declines in some seabirds. Since the polar regions are likely to experience the greatest warming from climate change, shifting locations of fish species (prey) may be problematic. Historically, whaling was presented considerable threat, but it was banned in 1961. Tourism can be a threat at a variety of scales- this is managed and monitored on Svalbard, but more site-specific data is needed (Hagan et al 2012).
Galapagos Governance System 1998-current["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]Tuna long-lining - prior to MPA establishment British and US whalers - mid-1800s Climate change and events - ongoing threats Tourist traffic is a current threat to green turtles (20% of nesting females have evidence of boat strike)
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan["Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]The major threats to migratory species within the MPA are bycatch in the small toothfish fishery and potential habitat threats. Mineral and petroleum exploration are not currently allowed within the MPA; nor is the dumping of waste within the MPA. Only passive transit of vessels is allowed in the highly protected zone.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012["Habitat destruction", "Other"]The direct threats to migratory species in the areas of the GABMP (CW) are: - Entanglement in marine debris or fishing and aquaculture equipment - Chemical Pollution - If petroleum exploration is initiated as planned for 2017 in the BPZ of the GABMP (CW), pollution from chemicals used in exploration drilling and petroleum production along with oil spills may present a threat to migratory species of the GAB. - Climate change - Modelling associated with global climate change predicts that there will be reduced productivity of Southern Ocean ecosystems and changes to climate and oceanographic processes may also lead to decreased productivity and different patterns of prey distribution and availability.There is also evidence that climate variability affects reproductive output in southern right whales calving in Australia (Leaper et al. 2006), with El Nino events being shown to lead to decreased calf production in a later year. A strong correlation has also been found between the number of right whale calves born and changes in sea-surface temperature, with calf output declining with an increase in water temperature (Leaper et al. 2006). - Physical injury and death from a ship strike - Acoustic pollution - from commercial and recreational vessel noise and seismic survey activity
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan["Resource competition", "Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]The major threats to migratory flying seabirds that are managed under this governance system are being caught incidentally in longline operations and also to habitat loss from human (e.g., scientists, tourists) and natural (e.g., volcanic) distances. Antarctic fur seals and Southern elephant seals are also threatened by competition for food (Mackerel Icefish, also targeted commercially, see Green 2006). King Penguins at HIMI have also been shown to forage on Mackerel Icefish, particularly in the winter (Moore et al. 1998).
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNot Applicable
Cenderwasih governance system["Resource competition", "Bycatch", "Habitat destruction"]Major Threats to Cendrawasih turtles: predation (wild pigs, dogs, lizards), low hatching success, surrounding land use changes like mining and/or logging, lack of legal protection, overfishing, and reef damage. Climate change potential (Natural Capital Project)
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilNot Applicable