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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionIf it is traded in a market, how high is the market value of this resource?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceVarious components of the market economy, such as existence of local markets, resource market value, or local market integration in the global economy, are considered to be important determinants of the sustainable resource use (Cinner and McClanahan 2006, Dietz et al. 2003). Pandit and Thapa (2004) found that commercially value nontimber forest products in the mountainous regions of Nepal are being overharvested in both national and community forests. In combination with other variables (ECMarkets, ECMarketScale, ECBlackMarkets), this information provides a good overview about the status and functioning of market economy for this resource.
Definition

"The commercial value of the resource in question in the open market. Low: almost all actors have the purchasing power to purchase the commons (e.g., a very common, small fish such as sardines) High: only very few actors have the purchasing power to purchase the commones (e.g., rare but highly desirable fish, e.g., bluefin tuna)"

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Gilded trapsHigh
Bans and perverse incentivesHigh
Roving banditryHigh
Market-driven resource declineHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaMedium (2)The primary product traded on the market from this forest is timber products. While not being cheap, these certainly are not very expensive, thus we code them as medium.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaMedium (2)Forest products have a medium value.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMissingNO DATA
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna High (3)
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesMissing
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaHigh (3)
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaHigh (3)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral cover 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishMedium (2)Some live reef fish are quite valuable, but on the whole prices are medium compared to other resources.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverLow (1)Very low value for lime.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningLow (1)Sub-national trading and subsistence uses mainly. Only a small market for live fish trade.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleLow (1)Low - Julian Clifton pers comm
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossLow (1)The market value of light mantled albatross is very low to non-existent.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberHigh (3)At it's peak it was high. Price rose from $0.06 US in 1992 to $0.80-1.00 US per individual in 2000, then fell to $0.55 US due to the smaller size of landed individuals in 2001. (Shepherd et al., 2004). In 2003, price tripled due to collapse of fisheries in other locations. (Hearn et al., 2003)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinLow (1)In the past penguins on Macquarie island were harvested for oil, with approximately 150,000 taken per year between 1894-1914. However, the harvests ended in 1920, and the population is no longer harvested for any purpose.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksHigh (3)Inlcudes very high end tourism market. Shark fins lucrative on illegal markets
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesMissing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverNot Applicable
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesMissing
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesMissing
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesMissing
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish ResourcesMissing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish Low (1)generally reef fish have a fairly low value, but some species have a high value (larger grouper and snapper). The live fish trade is lucrative
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatMedium (2)Depends on the species. Some species have a low market value (sole) while others are considered pricey (blackcod).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpMedium (2)The price of shrimp may fluctuate considerably – in recent years the price has ranged from $2.50-5.00 US per pound.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish High (3)Toothfish resources, particularly those that are MSC certified earn a premium price on international markets. Prices can range from 5-20 dollars per pound.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaHigh (3)South Australia’s tuna industry has increased production significantly since 1995/96, now producing more than 9,000 tonnes of processed tuna, valued at over $260M.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossLow (1)The market value of Light Mantled Albatross is very low to non-existent.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinLow (1)King Penguins used to be harvested for oil, though it is no longer harvested now. They are one of the targets of tourist vessels, however.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)Low (1)Low cost, high source of protein. Aggregate high value.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Low (1)Typically lower value than calamari species (NZ$6.90 KG vs NZ$12.90 KG) (Hawkes bayseafoods.co.nz). But aggregate high value fishery.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishLow (1)generally reef fish have a fairly low value, but some species have a high value (larger grouper and snapper). The live fish trade is lucrative
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Low (1)Though large sum revenue, relatively inexpensive product.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish High (3)Toothfish are an incredibly high value resource, sold largely in upscale restaurants and markets. The catch at HIMI (which has remained at between about 2500-4000+ tonnes per year) is estimated to be worth $32 million USD per year. In the United States fillets can be purchased from markets (e.g., Whole Foods) for upwards of $25USD/pound.