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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAre there well-articulated illegal markets for goods produced by or associated with this resource that affect this particular commons?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceExistence or co-existence of illegal markets can make regulation and management of a commons more difficult.
Definition

A black market or underground economy means that goods or services are traded through illegal transactions (i.e., does not conform to the formal rules laid out by the governance system).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Bans and perverse incentivesYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaYesLarge amounts of illegal timber were sold on domestic & international markets.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaYesillegally harvested wood from SE Asia, including Indonesia, plays a major role in global timber markets. See Dauvergne & Lister, 2011.
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesNo
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesNo
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaYesThere is clear evidence that illegal transactions occur in an attempt to mask the origin of fish. Some estimates indicate that trade of ABFT exceeds the official quota by 40%. However, illegal trade may have increased in the 2000's
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish N/A
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNo
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna YesThere is clear evidence that illegal transactions occur in an attempt to mask the origin of fish. Some estimates indicate that trade of ABFT exceeds the official quota by 40%. However, illegal trade may have increased in the 2000's
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaYesThere is clear evidence that illegal transactions occur in an attempt to mask the origin of fish. Some estimates indicate that trade of ABFT exceeds the official quota by 40%. However, illegal trade may have increased in the 2000's
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishNo
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningYesSome evidence of a live reef fish trade (of some prohibited species) in this area which may or may not select from the spawning aggregations (illegally). The black market issue is not considered to be of huge concern because access to market for resource users is limited.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNoThere is no evidence of a black market for light mantled albatross.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNo
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleYesSome evidence of turtle trade (Clifton 2013) - although not a large market (Julian Clifton pers comm).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberYesAsian markets. (less so now as the fishery is depleted)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleNoMuch of the illegal fishing that takes place in the Galapagos Marine Reserve targets sharks, tuna, and marlin - some by-catch of turtles but these are not the intended black market target
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish NoBlack markets do not appear to be a significant issue for this particular stock of Patagonian toothfish; however IUU fishing is a major concern for the species as a whole.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleNo
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverNoCoral mining does occur - appears to be for local use and is limited (Cullen 2010). However, this activity is considered to be insignificant, given the availability and access to cheaper land rock from the islands in the park, and the limited evidence for coral mining in the park (Clifton 2013).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksYesOver 22,000 shark fins and 680 shark carcasses were seized between 1998 and 2006, from vessels, on the islands and at airports leaving Galapagos or arriving at mainland Ecuador (Reyes and Murillo 2007).
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverNot Applicable
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesNo
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesNo
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish ResourcesNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNoPoaching has been dramatically reduced and main beaches are now monitored so coded as no
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish YesLive fish trade
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatNo
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpNoMay exist, but none mentioned/identified.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaYesYes black markets for SBT, but not within the GAB MPA. Japanese traders had “laundered” SBT by importing it as cheaper species and then renaming it at the marketplace. There was a minimum of $6-7 billion (Australian dollars) of illegal catch. I was unable to find a copy of the report but it is titled the Independent Review of Japanese SBT Market Data Anomalies. As a result of the report’s findings Japanese quotas of SBT were cut by half.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNoNo evidence of black market for Light Mantled Albatross.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish YesWhile IUU fishing for Patagonia toothfish has been drastically reduced (see e.g., Osterblom et al. 2015), it still persists in some areas and due to the high demand and price for toothfish, black markets still persist.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleMissingAlthough there have been efforts to curb black market sales of turtle eggs and meat, they may still exist. Uncertain as to the size of black markets.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)NoIllegal market yet, but not very big (usually incidental catch)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNoMay exist, but none mentioned/identified.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinNoThere are no known black markets for King Penguins.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthNoMost are for personal use, and any illegal market is not well-articulated.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishYesOrnamental fish trade and grouper live capture Erdmann pers comm.
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)NoNo evidence
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)No
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesNo
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMissingNO DATA