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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat types of rights does this actor group have with respect to this environmental commons?
Select OptionsAccess, Use, Exclusion, Management, Alienation, Transfer
Unit
Role
Importance"Different bundles of property rights, whether they are de facto or de jure, affect the incentives individuals face, the types of actions they take, and the outcomes they achieve" (Schlager and Ostrom 1992, p. 256).
Definition

"Indicates what types of rights an actor group has with respect to the environmental commons in an interaction. See Schlager and Ostrom (1992) Access: the right to enter a defined commons (only applies to natural resource commons).

Use: The right to obtain products from a resource (e.g. catch fish, appropriate water) or to emit a given pollutant.

Exclusion: A collective choice right to determine who will have access rights and how that right may be transferred. For example: fishermen who limit access to a fishing ground to males of a certain age from their community have exclusion rights. Since access only applies to natural resources, exclusion also only applies to natural resources.

Management: The right to create operational use rights. Individuals who have rights to management have the authority to determine when or where use of a resource or emission of a pollutant may occur. For example, a group of fishers who devise a zoning plan to limit harvesting activities to distinct areas of a fishing ground.

Alienation: the right to sell or lease either or both exclusion and management rights.

Transfer: the right to transfer (buy, sell) use rights."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Cap-and-trade policiesUse, alienation, and transfer

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities 
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursUseno formal rights?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaUseThis variable needs to be fixed to select multiple.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers["Use"]Researchers are allowed to approach whales and take samples/tag them with the appropriate permits.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINA["Exclusion", "Management"]They are in charge of management and can exclude certain actors from the MPA (industrial fishers from certain management zones).
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998) Umm, I'm not sure what it means for this actor to have rights?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012) Need to be able to select multiple.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia this group does not possess rights.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District Governments Does this group have rights?
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Management
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities variable needs to be fixed.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaUseneed to be able to check multiple!
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Management
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersManagementThis group is responsible for the implementation and enforcement of ICCAT regulations in their territorial waters and for their flagged fleet.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersManagement
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Access", "Management"]
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Secretariat["Management "]The Ozone Secretariat holds some management rights with regards to ODS.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersManagement
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersManagement
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersAccess
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States ["Management "]Nation states are responsible for managing implemenetation of the Montreal Protocol in their territory.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersAccessand Use.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers["Management "]
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties Management
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States ["Management ", "Alienation ", "Transfer"]Nation states have the right to regulate production, use and sale of ODS
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen["Access", "Use", "Management"]
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Managers have not introduced any private rights and have not sold rights to the common, although there is an agreement allowing NGOs to also manage the common.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[""]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Management"]Mangers manage resource and can exclude people from certain areas of the park
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]This group has the right to access, manage and exclude actors from using toothfish resources.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Can access for research, and exclude others from nesting beaches.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Managers have not introduced any private rights and have not sold rights to the common, although there is an agreement allowing NGOs to also manage the common
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Management and access for monitoring
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]The trusteeship manage the MPA and as the whole MPA is no-take they also exclude others. Access for monitoring. Mangers still need to apply for permits for their management actvities.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Access", "Management"]
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Mangers till need to apply for permits to manage
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA["Exclusion", "Management"]
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Access"]Can access coral reefs and while they do extract corals, mining is banned so they do not have extraction rights per se.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers[]Green turtles are protected in Indonesia, including through CITES, but the presence of live turtles awaiting export is commonly observed in Bajau villages and generally elicits little response from park authorities (Clifton 2013)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship ["Access", "Use", "Exclusion", "Management"]Co-trusteeship manage, can access and grant access to the commons and also exclude.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["Access"]Access - to nesting beaches and dive sites
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Access", "Use"]
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Access for monitoring. Exclusion of industrial fishing and long-lining.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Access to dive sites. Management and exclusion through represenation on PMB.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Access", "Use"]
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Access", "Use", "Exclusion", "Management"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Access", "Use", "Management"]Local communities can use
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism["Access"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Access", "Management"]Involved in management and access for monitoring/patrols
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Management and access for monitoring and research
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Management and access for monitoring/research. Some areas are no-take others for subsistence.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries Agencies["Alienation"]Alienation in the form of selling quota shares.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]They have the right to manage to light-mantled albatross within the Macquarie Island Marine Park and Macquarie Island Nature Reserve. They also regulate visits to the island and can exclude boats that fail to meet certain quarantine or permit standards.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Fishermen["Use", "Transfer"]With permits, fishermen can access the commons and use it to extract fish. Groundfish fishermen in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) system can buy or sell their quota rights.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Management"]The AFMA is responsible for managing the relationship between the toothfish fishery and the Light-mantled albatross. During initial long-line trials the fishery would have been closed if 2 light mantled albatross were taken as bycatch although this has now been changed in accordance with the Threat Abatement plan for the conservation of albatross and petrels which sets a maximum bycatch rate of 0.01 per 1000 hooks. A number of additional restrictions are put in place to limit bycatch of light mantled albatross and other seabirds.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Actor group can access Royal Penguin for scientific study or tourism, but can also prohibit access by other groups (such as tourists) and are responsible for managing Royal Penguin within the Nature Reserve and Marine Park
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation["Access", "Management"]Management and access for monitoring
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINA["Management"]As the main governmental authority, Coralina has rights to manage who has the right to fish where, etc.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers["Access", "Use", "Management"]Use - occasionally for scientific purposes/studies
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["", "Access", "Use"]They have rights to access resource, and limited use as part of bycatch.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers["Use"]Use in terms of research use with permit
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Access", "Use"]
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic Division["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]AAD tightly regulates the use of the HIMI Marine Reserve, including access to Albatross (by tourists, scientists, or others). However, these user groups can apply for permits via the AAD to access the islands and view or study the albatross.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers[""]Management, Exclusion (can stop fishing at any one time or in any one area)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers["Access", "Use"]
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Management"]The actor group, the Director and senior executive staff, are in charge of the administration, management and control of the Commonwealth reserves, which includes the GABMP and southern right whales and their habitat found within the GABMP (CW).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational Users["Use"]Recreational users can observe humpback whales in accordance with the regulations in the Marine Mammal Act and National Marine Sanctuaries Act.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism["Access"]Access into the Nature Reserves to view the polar bears.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks ["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]The actor group, the Director and senior executive staff, are in charge of the administration, management and control of the Commonwealth reserves, which includes commercial fishing for tuna in the GABMP (CW). Commercial fishing in the GABMP (CW) of SBT can only be carried out under a permit issued by the Director or under a Commonwealth or State law.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishers["Access", "Use"]
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers[""]
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managers[""]
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Access", "Use", "Transfer"]Statutory Fishing Rights (SFRs) are granted under Section 21 of the Fisheries Management Act 1991. There are two main types of SFRs are used in the Australian Fishing Zone, Quota SFRs and Gear SFRs. Quota SFRs aim to manage the species and amount of fish that can be taken from a fishery during the fishing season, this is done through seasonal quotas, while Gear SFRs specify the type and amount of gear that can be used. SFR holders do have the flexibility to buy, sell and lease these SFRs for use within a specified fishery.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation["Access", "Management"]Management (as part of PMB) Access for monitoring
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism[""]Access to the nature reserves, and to view the kittiwakes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Access"]
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Access", "Exclusion"]
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Access", "Use", "Exclusion"]
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers["Use"]The fishery is regulated by effort control: licences are required for the Russian and Norwegian vessels and the fleets operating in the Svalbard zone are regulated by number of effective fishing days and number of vessels by country.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin Foundation["Access", "Management"]Was part of PMB until 2008. Now involved in an advisory role. Conducts most of the monitoring, in support of the Parks Service.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Access", "Use", "Transfer"]
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Researchers["Access"]Access for research
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA["Management"]This actor group manages the protection and excludes the usage of any humpback for purposes other than research and observation.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic Division["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]AAD tightly regulates the use of the HIMI Marine Reserve, including access to King Penguins (by tourists, scientists, or others). However, these user groups can apply for permits via the AAD to access the islands and view or study the penguins.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource Managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]Exclusion – setting regulations based on historical extraction may excluded certain potential users
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managers["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery Managers[""]Management, Exclusion
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermen[""]Access, Use, Transfer (can sell license)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Access", "Exclusion", "Management"]This group has the right to access, manage and exclude actors from using toothfish resources.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers[""]access, use
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers[""]Management, Exclusion
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid Trawlers[""]Fishermen with ITQ are allowed to access commons and to catch: Access , Use
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management Authority["Management"]The AFMA implements management (via measures) of the interaction between fishing vessels and albatross.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Access", "Use"]Rights to access resources, and use (limited) via bycatch.