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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBiophysical (learn about themes)
QuestionHow high is the level of ecological connectivity between this natural resource system and its external environment?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
ImportanceExternal ecological connectivity can enhance resilience by facilitating recovery and renewal in systems, for example the dispersal of seeds or the spread of pollinators between similar habitats in different SES. Over-connectivity can, however, mean that disturbance events cascade rapidly through a system causing system collapse, for example impacts on marine ecosystems from run-off of land-based pollution. Some degree of modularity to "contain disturbances by compartmentalizing social-ecological systems" is beneficial for resilience (Carpenter et al. 2012)

External ecological connectivity is the manner and extent to which populatiions and species (e.g., eggs, larvae, juveniles, adults) or impacts (e.g., pollution spread by water flow) disperse, migrate or interact across ecological systems (e.g., land-sea, highlands-lowlands, transboundary ecosystem).


Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Conditions for general resilienceModerate
Openness and general resilienceModerate (2)

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Carpenter, Stephen R., et al., 2012. General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events. Sustainability 4 (12): 3248-3259

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
California Groundfish Habitat 
Mangrove forest in Bragan├ža, BrazilHigh (3)
Lombok aquaculture irrigation canalsHigh (3)Fed by river system in rainy season and tides from the ocean
Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, IndonesiaHigh (3)
Gulf of Nicoya fisheriesMissing