|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||What type of coordination do the members of this actor group engage in with members of other actor groups that are also involved in the use and/or management of the resource?|
|Select Options||No coordination, Informal, Formal, Both formal and informal|
|Importance||Informal vs. formal coordination imply potentially very different types of interactions actor groups. Groups that only interact formally will likely not have as much social capital developed as one that also involves informal. An informally coordination group may not have as much legal legitimacy as a formal one.|
Coordination in this case refers to a clear distinction between formal and informal coordination. Formal coordination is governed by formal rules, themselves usually written down. Informal coordination does not rely on formal rules.
|Polycentric comanagement||Both formal and informal|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||Both formal and informal||The MPAs were built upon traditional marine management "sasi", which is still followed|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||Both formal and informal||Formal meetings as well as informal relationships occur with the Sanctuary and other users/managers.|
|Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan|
|Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan|
|Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan||Both formal and informal||While mostly formal, informal meetings occur frequently.|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||Formal|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Formal||AFMA (Australian Fisheries Management Authority), which implements the fisheries management plan, also coordinates (horizontally) with members of the AAD (Australian Antarctic Division). They further (vertically) coordinate with CCAMLR and multiple science and advisory groups (e.g., SARAG, SouthMAC).|
|Cenderwasih governance system|
|The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)||Both formal and informal||Formal: Meetings, Organizations Informal: Everyone knows each other and talks to each other, very small community|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan||Both formal and informal||Managers and fishers know each other and engage in formal coordination through stakeholder engagement practices and public hearings, but also informally know each other.|
|New Zealand Quota Management System||Both formal and informal||Both formal and informal. Deepwater Group (DWG) Ltd formed in 2005 to provide a collective voice for deepwater quota owners, collaborate frequently with Ministry of Fisheries. Before that coordinated through Squid Management Company. Official processes for stakeholder engagement. Required by the Fisheries Act. Public incorporation process for any decision Minister makes. Informal coordination does exist through personal relationships. Often professional, but informal discussions exist. Decisions that are final and legalized are all formally conducted. Informally make decisions that do not go through the legal system, such as SLED monitoring and practices. Such informal coordination is often more effective at conserving sea lions than formal legal structure is.|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||Informal|
|Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||Both formal and informal|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||Both formal and informal|
|Sasi in Tomolol, Misool|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||Missing|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||Both formal and informal|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.