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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
QuestionWhat type of coordination do the members of this actor group engage in with members of other actor groups that are also involved in the use and/or management of the resource?
Select OptionsNo coordination, Informal, Formal, Both formal and informal
ImportanceInformal vs. formal coordination imply potentially very different types of interactions actor groups. Groups that only interact formally will likely not have as much social capital developed as one that also involves informal. An informally coordination group may not have as much legal legitimacy as a formal one.

Coordination in this case refers to a clear distinction between formal and informal coordination. Formal coordination is governed by formal rules, themselves usually written down. Informal coordination does not rely on formal rules.



Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Polycentric comanagementBoth formal and informal

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
NWHI Monument Act 2006 
Raja Ampat Governance SystemBoth formal and informalThe MPAs were built upon traditional marine management "sasi", which is still followed
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan 
The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)Both formal and informalFormal: Meetings, Organizations Informal: Everyone knows each other and talks to each other, very small community
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanBoth formal and informalManagers and fishers know each other and engage in formal coordination through stakeholder engagement practices and public hearings, but also informally know each other.
New Zealand Quota Management SystemBoth formal and informalBoth formal and informal. Deepwater Group (DWG) Ltd formed in 2005 to provide a collective voice for deepwater quota owners, collaborate frequently with Ministry of Fisheries. Before that coordinated through Squid Management Company. Official processes for stakeholder engagement. Required by the Fisheries Act. Public incorporation process for any decision Minister makes. Informal coordination does exist through personal relationships. Often professional, but informal discussions exist. Decisions that are final and legalized are all formally conducted. Informally make decisions that do not go through the legal system, such as SLED monitoring and practices. Such informal coordination is often more effective at conserving sea lions than formal legal structure is.
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture 
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingBoth formal and informal
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaBoth formal and informal
Sasi in Tomolol, Misool  
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System Both formal and informalFormal meetings as well as informal relationships occur with the Sanctuary and other users/managers.
Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan 
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanFormalAFMA (Australian Fisheries Management Authority), which implements the fisheries management plan, also coordinates (horizontally) with members of the AAD (Australian Antarctic Division). They further (vertically) coordinate with CCAMLR and multiple science and advisory groups (e.g., SARAG, SouthMAC).
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan  
Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanBoth formal and informalWhile mostly formal, informal meetings occur frequently.
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActFormal
Seaflower MPA Act 2005Both formal and informal
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012 
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMissing
Cenderwasih governance system 
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilInformal