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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutional-biophysical linkage (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionHow dependent are the members of the group on this commons for their economic well-being?
Select Options1 Not dependent or Slightly dependent, 2 Moderately dependent, 3 Very dependent
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThis variable forms the crux of many explanations about the sustainable use of natural resources (Agrawal, 2003). Most models of CPR systems account for resource dependence within the model as a core condition for resource sustainability and resource replenishment. Ostrom (2007) notes that collective action is facilitated when resource users are dependent on a resource for a major portion of their livelihood. Studies of social movements also show that marginalized communities are often motivated to act collectively to defend resources on which they depend for their livelihood (Martinez-Alier 2002). On the other hand, the literature that emphasizes commons user vulnerability (Adger 2000; Cinner et al. 2012) argue that dependence on a single resource can make users more sensitive, and thus less adaptable, to variations and disturbances in the social-ecological systems. This presents a basic trade-off in social-ecological systems. This dynamic may not apply to groups that are dependent on pollution-based commons.
Definition

Economic Dependence refers to the extent to which members of the actor group rely on the commons to maintain their livelihood or economic well-being. A synonym for economic dependence is economic salience (Ostrom 2007). For pollutants this would mean that they are reliant on the process that produces the pollutant. Slightly dependent: The actor group derives no or very little of its economic well being from the use of this commons. Very Dependent: The actor group derives most or all of their economic well being from the use of this commons.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)Moderately to Very dependent
Natural resource dependenceModerately dependent
Gilded trapsVery dependent
Marginalization and degradationVery dependent

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaVery dependent (3)This group consists of industries whose sole basis is the existence of the commons, making them very dependent. At the same time, they were arguably less dependent than "adat communities" because hypothetically, they could relocate capital to other industries if the commons were unavailable, which indigenous people could not do.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesVery dependent (3)This group derived a significant portion of their livelihoods either directly from the forest or from swidden agriculture.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursVery dependent (3)IT would appear that this group is very dependent on this resource, but we do not have much evidence about this.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesVery dependent (3)Members of this group are classic forest dependent people, dependent on forest resources & swidden agriculture for their subsistence.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)This group is generally not directly economically dependent on the forest
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaVery dependent (3)These industries depend on the extraction of forest products - or the conversion of forests to other uses - and would cease to exist if they couldn't do this.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)28% of respondents indicate that they derive some portion of their income from the local fishery.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersModerately dependent (2)The level of economic dependence on ODS products declined over this snapshot, beginning with higher level of dependence that became gradually less over the snapshot.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)0% of respondents derive income from the local fishery.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsVery dependent (3)The pollutants are outputs of main production processes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersVery dependent (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenModerately dependent (2)Sea cucmber fishery was important at the start of the time period, but as the fishery collapsed many fishers left the sector and moved into Tourism. They are not artisnanal fishers as found in other cases and can be described more as 'economc opportunists'. Coded as moderately important as it was important for a time, but clearly not the only option or livelihood traditional available to the fishermen. Alex Hearn pers comm. Galapagos Conservacy Report 2011-2012 for info on fisher numbers, sea cucmber decline and tourism.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerately dependent (2)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersVery dependent (3)Many industrial processes and consumer goods depend upon ODS.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerately dependent (2)Both companies are partially dependent on the Macquaries Island toothfish fishery fisheries for their well-being; but they are also involved in other fisheries
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersVery dependent (3)Not necessarily dependent on the corals themselves but are dependent on a healthy ecosystem and 90% are involved in fishing the reef-associated fishery for subsistence (Cullen 2010). This dependency drives some use of illegal and destructive gears with significant impacts on corals
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Bajau are highly dependent on the multi-species fishery - turtles are a component of this: "whilst the export of turtles is officially banned, the presence of live turtles awaiting export is commonly observed in Bajau villages" Clifton 2013. Changed coding from moderately-dependent to slightly dependent after interview with Julain Clifton (June 2015) who said turtles were not a major catch species and a fairly undesirable by-catch.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorModerately dependent (2)Tourists travel to see charismatic species such as turtles as part of visiting a unique marine environment
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersVery dependent (3)Almost 90% of Bajau households were involved in fishing for income or subsistence (Cullen 2010)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery dependent (3)Not necessarily dependent on the corals themselves but are dependent on a healthy ecosystem. Many fishermen also farm, but fishing of coral-associated species is still an important livelihood.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Not dependent on the southern right whale
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Researchers are not economically tied to the well-being of the rocky intertidal.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersVery dependent (3)Fishing is an important livelihood
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismVery dependent (3)The attraction of Raja Ampat is for high quality reefs and good coral cover.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Turtle is not a main catch species.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenModerately dependent (2)Many fishermen find other avenues for earning income, especially with the low quotas, however many consider fishing their only source of income. Other fishermen can access other gear types, and other species (e.g. salmon, crab).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Toothfish fishers do not depend upon light mantled albatross for their well-being at all.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerately dependent (2)HIMI toothfish fisheries depend on this fishery for their well-being; but they are also involved in other fisheries.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CModerately dependent (2)55% of respondents derive some portion of their income from local fisheries.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)The well-being of the species is not directly tied to employees continuing to be employed.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersModerately dependent (2)Whale-watching companies are very dependent on strong humpback whale populations. Kayak and sailboat companies somewhat dependent. Tourists less economically dependent, but experience other loss.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Tourists visit the nature reserves to see a variety of species (including polar bears, walrus, whales (various), seals, and seabirds), the polar wilderness, and cultural heritage sites. The polar bear is certainly an iconic species, but not the only tourist attraction of the Reserves.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersVery dependent (3)Groupers seem to be one of the main commercial resources they fish.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersModerately dependent (2)Fishing is not as important as farming.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EVery dependent (3)96% of respondents derive at least some portion of their income from the local fishery.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Tourists visit the nature reserves to see a variety of species (including polar bears, walrus, whales (various), seals, and seabirds), the polar wilderness, and cultural heritage sites.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Not directly dependent but are indirectly dependent through coral-fish interactions
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersModerately dependent (2)Fishing is not as important as farming.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersVery dependent (3)For those involved, the shrimp fishery provides the main source of income. However, in recent years an increasing number of fishers are fishing for both cod and shrimp.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Only 4% of respondents derive some portion of their income from the local fishery.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Toothfish fishers at HIMI do not depend on Light Mantled Albatross for their well being.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FModerately dependent (2)53% of respondents derive some portion of their income from non-fisheries sources.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersVery dependent (3)The SBT commercial fishers focus on SBT which is ranched. They may have access to other fisheries but their focus is SBT.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BModerately dependent (2)54% of community members derive some portion of their income from local fisheries.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenModerately dependent (2)Moderately to High. Squid is the "money-maker" so without it, could not last in the fishery after a few years. Would have to seek other industries.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersModerately dependent (2)Squid can be economically profitable, and are important, but not fully dependent. Multi-fish fishery.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot dependent or Slightly dependent (1)Not dependent on the Australian sealion
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AVery dependent (3)82% of respondents derive at least some portion of their income from the local fishery.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersVery dependent (3)This is the Spanish masters and crew main source of income. The Joint Ventures partake in many other industries, but Loligo is a major contributor. Falkland Islands depends heavily on squid, is the reason they are self-sufficient.