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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat is the general trend in the condition (enhanced or degraded) of provisioning services (e.g., food, water, fiber, fuel) derived from this commons during the time frame of this snapshot?
Select Options1 Worsened, 2 Mixed effects or remained the same, 3 Improving
Unit
Role
Importance"The provisioning services provided by a commons is an important outcome of interest that project members can try to explain. Ecosystem services are a lens through which human benefits from ecosystems can be considered (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Daily et al. 2000). This question seeks to ascertain whether the condition of provisioning services has worsened, is mixed or remained the same, or improved for an actor group. The variable applies to all relevant cultural services of the resource and governance system for that actor group."
Definition

"This variable describes trends in the condition of provisioning services provided by the commons in an interaction. Provisioning services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as ""…products obtained from ecosystems, including: Food and fiber. This includes the vast range of food products derived from plants, animals, and microbes, as well as materials such as wood, jute, hemp, silk, and many other products derived from ecosystems. Fuel. Wood, dung, and other biological materials serve as sources of energy. Genetic resources. This includes the genes and genetic information used for animal and plant breeding and biotechnology. Biochemicals, natural medicines, and pharmaceuticals. Many medicines, biocides, food additives such as alginates, and biological materials are derived from ecosystems. Ornamental resources. Animal products, such as skins and shells, an flowers are used as ornaments, although the value of these resources is often culturally determined. This is an example of linkages between the categories of ecosystem services. Fresh water. Fresh water is another example of linkages between categories—in this case, between provisioning and regulating services."""

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)Less forests means less provisioning services available.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)Declining forest cover led to a decline in the ability of this system to provide all forms of ecosystem services in this time period.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna 
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Biomass in PHC is not significantly greater than open areas of the LMMA.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesImproving (3)There is significantly greater targeted fish biomass within the PHC as compared to open areas of the LMMA (p<0.10)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaWorsened (1)
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral cover Not applicable.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishImproving (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberWorsened (1)Fishery is now considered 'depleted' Many fishers have left the sector (and moved into tourism)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Impacts from local mining for lime-making is minimal
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Targeted fish in PHC areas are not significantly greater than targeted fish resources within open areas of the LMMA.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningMixed effects or remained the same (2)Slight improvement in numbers of fish. E.g., from 48-95 and 95-123 at two spawning aggregation sites between 2011-2014 (Subhan 2014) http://www.reefresilience.org/case-studies/indonesia-mpa-management/ Interview confirmed a possible slight improvement in fish, but in light of a major decline before this snap shot
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleMixed effects or remained the same (2)turtle populations remain stable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Mixed effects or remained the same (2)Toothfish are the only resource harvested in the area, aside from bycatch. Catches have generally been stable over this time period.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksNot Applicable
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Biomass in PHC is not significantly greater than open areas of the LMMA.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesImproving (3)There is significantly greater targeted fish biomass within the PHC as compared to open areas of the LMMA (p<0.10)
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Targeted fish in PHC areas are not significantly greater than targeted fish resources within open areas of the LMMA.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish Improving (3)Local marine tenure is more secure and so food security of local communites has improved (M. Erdmann pers comm).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleWorsened (1)Reports that turtle populations have declined in the park (Julian Clifton pers comm)- but no solid evidence, from e.g. long-term monitoring
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaWorsened (1)Stocks have declined
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpWorsened (1)For this snap-shot (2004-2012) the total shrimp catch has declined slightly (NAFO 2012a). Shrimp populations are considered at stable levels, but market prices have declined.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatWorsened (1)More regulations including limiting quotas have decreased how much fish are used for provisioning services.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)Mixed effects or remained the same (2)Stayed the same: sams general market of provisioning.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesImproving (3)There is significantly greater targeted fish biomass within the PHC as compared to open areas of the LMMA (p<0.10)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Mixed effects or remained the same (2)Toothfish are the main resource harvested in the area, though icefish are also harvested. Toothfish catches have generally remained stable during the snapshot (between ~2400-2800 tonnes). Icefish catches have fluctuated wildly, but more as a result of their life history than as an effect of fishing.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishMixed effects or remained the same (2)An interview with Erdmann said slight improvements, and for the BHS trends appear stable so coded as no change rather than an increase due to lack of data to confirm increasing trend. Household marine tenure found to have declined in Cenderwasih 2010-2014 (WWF 2015)
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Improving (3)Have been able to expand to the global market.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Mixed effects or remained the same (2)Increased in the middle, and went down again
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesMixed effects or remained the same (2)Biomass in PHC is not significantly greater than open areas of the LMMA.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMixed effects or remained the same (2)Follows the Commons Condition Trend