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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow intensively does this actor group use technology in its monitoring of this commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceWith environmental information, community members can elaborate and adapt appropriation and provision rules that help to guarantee the sustainability of the resource (Cox et al. 2010). The use of technology can reduce the costs of monitoring but the acquisition or construction of the technology can be costly and requires management and/or maintenance also.
Definition

"Environmental monitoring refers to the acquisition of information about the conditions of the resource being used and/or managed (Cox et al. 2010). Technological intensity refers to the increasing of modern advanced technolgoies, such as remote sensing and scientific modeling. Low: Little technology is used. The majority of monitoring is done by direct human experience and observation. High: The most modern technologies are employed, such as remote sensing technologies."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District GovernmentsLow (1)
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)Doesn't monitor.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)This actor group had very little access to technologies of any kind.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursLow (1)it does not monitor
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)This actor group does not use very much technology.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Low (1)Little technology was used to monitor the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Medium (2)Some satellite remote sensing is in use to monitor the commons, but not much.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMedium (2)They use SCUBA and/or other technological means.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaMedium (2)This user group does use some sophisticated technology, including remote sensing from satellites and airplanes, however the use of these technologies remains limited.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties High (3)Scientific modelling such as VPA is used to estimate the size of fish stocks to the exclusion of other methods.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This group does not engage in monitoring.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)GPS and depth gauges help monitors determine fishing location, but this is not really what the groundfish fishermen are doing.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties High (3)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)Some countries utilize advanced monitoring technologies such as radar and aerial images, while others
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western MembersHigh (3)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States High (3)Scientific technology is used to monitor atmospheric ozone conditions by developed nations.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatHigh (3)Scientific technology is used to monitor atmospheric ozone conditions
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern MembersMedium (2)
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers Not applicable, does not monitor
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)Boats and SCUBA gear, manta tows get used for monitoring, although much of that is run by AIMS
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)Boats, scuba gear, video tows used in monitoring of the commons.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers N/A
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties High (3)Scientific modelling such as VPA is used to estimate the size of fish stocks to the exclusion of other methods.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Some commercial fishers use VMS, also log books.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Low (1)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)Fish-catch monitored. GPS used to monitor fisher location. Have previously had on-board observers from CDF
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersLow (1)Patrol boats (10 days a months approx).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINAMedium (2)They use SCUBA and/or other technological means.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Aerial monitoring; oceanographic work; satellite tracking.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersLow (1)Patrol boats (10 days a months approx) used to monitor in general, including harvesting of turtles. Environmental monitoring of nesting beaches but no regular patrolling of beaches - monitoring is in any case low technology.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersLow (1)Patrol boats used to monitor poaching from no-take zones (approx 10 days / month)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)AFMA uses more sophisticated technology (e.g., satellites) in monitoring this commons, but the fishers themselves use limited technology (e.g., their vessels and onboard communication).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Catch is measured, on board observers, GPS location - fairly low technological input.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)Satellite tracking and genetics of turtles
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersHigh (3)Uses low cost technology to publish details of up-to-date fisheries regulations and announcements. Also uses boats, helicopters and VMS to monitoring catch and compliance.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)Pup numbers estimated by walking through colonies and counting pups. Some tag and recapture studies.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau are not involved in monitoring, and do not have access to technologies
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)VMS
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Monitoring of bycatch via log-book reporting, and GPS.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersLow (1)Technology is not used to assess resource conditions; although satellite transmitters have been used to asses the foraging zones of royal penguins
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Monitoring of interactions with southern right whales is via log-book reporting, and GPS.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersLow (1)Standard fishing gear.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)This actor group uses technology to estimate resource conditions (i..e VPA); and monitor the location of fishing vessels.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersMedium (2)underwater surveys - scuba, baited and unbaited cameras
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Main monitoring of turtles is beach patrols
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Mostly beach patrols, but also used satellite tracking to determine turtle migration.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersMedium (2)Use boats to patrol the area. no satellite monitoring, so coded as medium
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesHigh (3)GIS is extensively used. Acoustic data is integrated often. NMFS fishery-independent surveys require vessels, GPS, CTD (conductivity temperature depth) instruments are used to collect environmental data, and cameras are occasionally dropped. Pipe dredges are occasionally used to sample sediment at the bottom (NMFS). A list of all the projects (many which encompass varying levels of technology use) that are incorporated are found at: http://www.pcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/App_C4_Data_Sources_EFH_Phase1_Sep2012.pdf
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersLow (1)Some technology has been used to track foraging patterns of seabirds on Macquarie Island, but as a whole it is used very rarely.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)SCUBA, engine powered boats
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)Although observations are made by sight, helicopters are used to access the areas. Satellite radio collars,ear tags and tattoos (e.g. Mauritzen et al 2002).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityLow (1)Monitoring is accomplished almost exclusively by onboard observers
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Monitoring is accomplished via onboard observer program.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersMedium (2)Parks Service now responsible for turtle monitoring. Beach patrols (low) and some satellite tracking of movements (high)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)The TOPP program uses highly developed tags and satellites in its efforts and monitoring, GPS is heavily used, line-transect survey methods are used to collect abundance data, biopsy technology is often needed, cameras and identification are used, for acoustics depth sounders are used at various frequencies, sonobuoys, CTDs, and bongo tows are used.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)High technology: Annual aerial flights from Perth to Ceduna over the last 3 decades provide information on the whales in the SW of Australia (personal communication Claire Charlton, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University, Western Australia). Satellite tagging is used to track migration information. Low - medium technology: Visual observations of the where the whales arrive and leave the area takes place on foot by scientists hiking along the cliffs at the Head of Bight. Photo ID is used to identify individual whales and determine movement patterns.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionLow (1)Fishing and patrol vessels may be involved in monitoring. Satellite technology could be used in monitoring.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityLow (1)Monitoring is completed by onboard fisheries observers using limited technology (though they do travel on board modern fisheries vessels).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersHigh (3)Mobile application Spotter is common in monitoring, and whale watch vessels use GPS and high efficiency vessels for monitoring.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHigh (3)Use boats and scuba for underwater monitoring. Also use low-cost technologies to advertise and enforce MPA boundaries.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationHigh (3)Satellite tagging and tracking of sharks - n 2006 coded ultrasonic tags were placed on sharks (either internally by surgery or externally with a dart) and deploying an array of underwater listening stations that detect and record the presence of tagged sharks within a radius of approximately 200 m - Hearn et al 2014.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersMedium (2)Rely on GPS. Vessels use fish tracts. VMS used to mark position. Each trawler transmits a daily catch report to FIFD including catch mass by species or species group, effort in trawl hours and noon position defined as the 0.5◦ longitudeÅ~0.25◦ latitude grid square…. vessels also have electronic logbook that records positions and catches for every trawl, and also records the product market-size categories (by mantle length) of D. gahi. These electronic logbooks are also transmitted daily, providing higher spatial resolution of the catches and an index of the size distributions of the squid (Arkhipkin et al. 2013b). Commercial fleet radios in daily to report, for both surveillance and enforcement, and provide real-time catch and effort data at small- spatial and temporal scales, they provide 3 positions daily (Arkhipkin et al. 2008).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)SCUBA, engine powered boats.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)AFMA uses more sophisticated technology (e.g., satellites) in monitoring this commons, but the fishers themselves use limited technology (e.g., their vessels and onboard communication).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)Most monitoring is conducted via beach patrols, but also some satellite tracking
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionLow (1)Satellite technology could be used in monitoring; IUU patrol vessels may also be involved in monitoring.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersMedium (2)While some monitoring uses basic tools (quadrats and tape measures), others use ambient hand-held wind meter and GPS devices. Higher technology is accessible but not quite needed for this ecosystem.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring or use of technology by local communities
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMedium (2)There have been satellite telemetry studies monitoring the movements and migrations of turtles.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersLow (1)Patrol boats
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersLow (1)No high-end technology needed to report bycatch.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationMedium (2)Monitoring of sea cucumbers does not require particularly high levels of technology - underwater surveys, or on-board observers and GPS
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAHigh (3)The mobile device tool "Spotter" is one example of monitoring technology. Data is collected on physical conditions. The Coast Guard uses planes to fly over the sanctuaries (for enforcement and monitoring). GPS and GIS is widely used. The Wind to Whales project uses remote sensing, moorings (e.g. bottom passive caustic mooring systems to determine vocal behavior and abundance), ship-board surveys, and tagging with archival dive recorders (SIMoN).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersHigh (3)includes satelite tracking, remote sensing, acoustics etc
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAMedium (2)While some monitoring uses basic tools (quadrats and tape measures), others use ambient hand-held wind meter and GPS devices. Ability to use high technology is there, but not quite needed for this ecosystem.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersLow (1)Patrol boats
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)Monitoring at breeding sites - counts (require boats) and population modelling
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersMedium (2)Monitoring uses fairly basic technology, such as regular fishing vessels and fishing gear.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring or use of technology by local communities
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)On board vessel monitoring of SBT is through scientific observers, logbook recording, and vessel monitoring systems.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Medium (2)Technology is used intensively to monitor SBT (e.g. onboard scientific observers, VMS, aerial surveys, electronic tagging/acoustic surveys) - but it is not the Director of Parks who is directly responsible for this (AFMA, CCSBT, CSIRO), although they do have to approve it - so coded as medium.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)Most important technology is within the sea lion SLED design and deployment. Do rely on fish finders, GPS, other common factory trawl technologies.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityHigh (3)Technology is required for monitoring. Vessels are monitored via VMS (via satellite), but also actively monitored by other vessels.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersMedium (2)Vessels, nets, lights, sonar, fish finder, electronic logbooks
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenLow (1)Rarely monitor. Focus on fishery-dependent sampling efforts and ongoing monitoring of catch information. The fisherydependent sampling is essential for real-time monitoring of the market squid fishery through the egg escapement method. (FMA 2005). Lights and fish finders used to catch, and therefore somewhat used for monitoring. Marine protected areas monitored through radar. Some sampling and environmental condition surveys.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)Use of GPS and fish trackers. VMS used to mark position. Each trawler transmits a daily catch report to FIFD including catch mass by species or species group, effort in trawl hours and noon position defined as the 0.5◦ longitudeÅ~0.25◦ latitude grid square…. vessels also have electronic logbook that records positions and catches for every trawl, and also records the product market-size categories (by mantle length) of D. gahi. These electronic logbooks are also transmitted daily, providing higher spatial resolution of the catches and an index of the size distributions of the squid (Arkhipkin et al. 2013b). Commercial fleet radios in daily to report, for both surveillance and enforcement, and provide real-time catch and effort data at small- spatial and temporal scales, they provide 3 positions daily (Arkhipkin et al. 2008).
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersMedium (2)Technology is primarily involved with the SLED design and deployment. Primarily industry who dictates technological changes in SLED.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)The fishers do not monitor albatross, but onboard observers (hired by AFMA) do.