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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDoes this governance system contain multiple levels, with each level having a set of actors who conduct tasks with respect to the management of this commons? If so, is there active coordination across these levels, or not?
Select OptionsSingle-level governance, Coordination among multiple levels, Multiple levels but no coordination
Unit
Role
ImportanceThe variable describes governance whose performance varies, it is assumed, depending on the way it is structured across levels.
Definition

Multi-level corresponds to the presence of multiple jurisdictional levels that may interact to come to decisions on specific governance functions (e.g. monitoring, provisioning, production, enforcement, etc.). Those interactions can be synergistic or antagonistic.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Polycentric comanagementCoordination among multiple levels
Conditions for general resilienceCo-ordination among multiple levels
Nested governanceCoordination among multiple levels
CBNRM design principlesCoordination among multiple levels

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Single-level governanceIt is implemented by a regional-level governance agency CORALINA
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsThe AFMA coordinates some activities with other actors involved in the management of the Maquarie Island MPA and Nature Reserve and CCAMLR. Limited fishing effort takes place within the habitat/species protection zone of the MPA in the Macquarie Ridge sector. Fishing does not take place within the nature reserve, areas within 3 nautical miles from shore.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-19980This is a highly centralized governance system
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-20121Decision-making power was devolved to the district level over some aspects of forest decision-making. In addition, customary (adat) law received some formal recognition
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceMontreal Protocol1Nation states are responsible for reporting, and implementing protocol within their territory.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemCoordination among multiple levels
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemCoordination among multiple levelsICCAT coordinates rules and information about the resource, while nations are responsible for enacting regulations, and ensuring compliance among their flagged fleet.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemCoordination among multiple levelsICCAT creates rules and conducts scientific assessments. Nation states implement rules, monitor resource use and report to ICCAT.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Coordination among multiple levelsAgencies coordinate greatly over rocky intertidal activities. CDFW and Coast Guard can enforce, Sanctuary actively manages. Local officials can enforce violations of Sanctuary rules regarding this habitat.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-19990Managed exclusively by GBRMPA/QPWS.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine Chemicals Convention1The Convention overlapped with regulations by nations on water pollution and treatment
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentCoordination among multiple levelsManaged by GBRMPA/QPWS; these are different levels of government.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentCoordination among multiple levelsThis GS reflects a stream-lined polycentric governance system. There are Federal and State agencies involved, and local advisory groups but few actors considering the scale of the SES.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-19991
Montreal ProtocolGovernancePre-Montreal Protocol Ozone Governance0Only nation states are able to create regulations over this snapshot
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentCoordination among multiple levelsCentral government allocate budgets. Local government enforce legislation. NGOs fill in the gaps in enforcement, monitoring etc.,
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentCoordination among multiple levelsCentral government allocate budgets. Local government enforce legislation. NGOs fill in the gaps in enforcement, monitoring etc
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentCoordination among multiple levelsCentral government allocate budgets. Local government enforce legislation. NGOs fill in the gaps in enforcement, monitoring etc.,
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Coordination among multiple levelsThe Australian government has supported some activities such as the pest eradication program that take place within the nature reserve.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsCoordination occurs between the AFMA, Department of the Environment and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Coordination among multiple levelsCo-trusteeship with well-defined roles (Kittinger 2010)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Coordination among multiple levelsThe Tasmanian PWS and Director of National Parks aim to implement rules that are congruent with one another.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Coordination among multiple levelsThere is coordination between the Great Australian Bight Marine Park Steering (state and commonwealth agencies, local government, fishery and tourism commissions) and Consultative Committees (community, indigenous, commercial and scientific interests), and the Director of National Parks.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Coordination among multiple levelsCo-trusteeship with well-defined roles (Kittinger 2010)
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemCoordination among multiple levelsCo-management - between Raja Ampat Regency, NGOs and local communities
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentCoordination among multiple levelsTwo-tiered governance system - PMB and IMA (with clear coordination, at least on paper)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemCoordination among multiple levelsCo-management - between Raja Ampat Regency, NGOs and local communities
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemCoordination among multiple levels
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActSingle-level governanceCentral government regulations.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Coordination among multiple levelsMultiple agencies approach multiple areas of governance for the humpback whale. Coast Guard manages through aerial and vessel enforcement. Fish and Wildlife agents enforce violations. Sanctuary coordinates dealing with strandings and ship strikes.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Coordination among multiple levelsCo-trusteeship with well-defined roles (Kittinger 2010)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsMultiple levels are specified, within and among specific teams. There are frequent meetings with the various research teams and advisory teams, and with the voting Council members. The state manages near shore habitats and the state MPA structure (spatial closures), and the Council manages federal levels.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanCoordination among multiple levels
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)Coordination among multiple levelsFalkland Islands Fisheries Department is hierarchal (4 basic levels) and there is high coordination. Not so much different agencies.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActCoordination among multiple levelsCoordination between the Governor, Coast Guard, and Polar Institute (the latter two are branches/agencies of the central government).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentCoordination among multiple levelsTwo-tiered governance system - PMB and IMA
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsThere is purported collaboration and coordination across multiple levels, especially between the AFMA, the fishing industry, AAD, and CCAMLR. But also with the Australian Defense Force, who regularly patrols the area.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Coordination among multiple levelsThe governance systems for this commons involve coordination among multiple levels. The Management Plans take into account Australia's obligations under relevant international agreements, for example the United Nationals Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (National Parks 1999; National Parks 2005). The Great Australian Bight Marine Park Steering and Consultative Committees help in the development of Management Plans and these Committees advise the Director about management of the GABMP (CW). At the time of preparation of the 2005 - 2012 Management Plan, the Steering Committee consisted of representatives from both State and Commonwealth agencies (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage, Primary Industries and Resources South Australia), municipal government (District Council of Ceduna), and fishery and tourism commissions (South Australian Tourism Commission, Australian Fisheries Management Authority) (National Parks 2005). The Consultative Committee represents general community interests, Indigenous interests, commercial interests and scientific interests in the Park and the State Park and includes representatives of the petroleum and fishery industries, Indigenous peoples, scientists (SARDI, CSIRO and environmental non-government organizations (The Wilderness Society) (National Parks 2005).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemCoordination among multiple levelsCentral government allocate budgets. Local government enforce legislation.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSingle-level governanceAAD carries out all management.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Coordination among multiple levelsThe Nature Reserve coordinates regulations with the toothfish fishery management plan and MPA management plan.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentCoordination among multiple levelsThe GBR is co-managed between the federal and provincial governments through agreements which outline their joint responsibility.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Coordination among multiple levelsThe Great Australian Bight Marine Park Steering and Consultative Committees help in the development of Management Plans and these Committees advise the Director about management of the GABMP (CW). At the time of preparation of the 2005 - 2012 Management Plan, the Steering Committee consisted of representatives from both State and Commonwealth agencies (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage, Primary Industries and Resources South Australia), municipal government (District Council of Ceduna), and fishery and tourism commissions (South Australian Tourism Commission, Australian Fisheries Management Authority) (National Parks 2005). The Consultative Committee represents general community interests, Indigenous interests, commercial interests and scientific interests in the Park and the State Park and includes representatives of the petroleum and fishery industries, Indigenous peoples, scientists (SARDI, CSIRO and environmental non-government organizations (The Wilderness Society) (National Parks 2005).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanSingle-level governanceAAD is fully responsible for management.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsThe Macquarie Island Management Plan is jointly implemented by a number of government bodies including the Australian fisheries management authority, Australian Department of the Environment, the Australian Antarctic Division, and Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsThe Tasmanian parks and Wildlife Services coordinates with the Department of the Environment Australia to coordinate regulations for the management of the reserve and marine park.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Single-level governanceIt is implemented by a regional-level governance agency CORALINA
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentCoordination among multiple levelsTwo-tiered governance system - PMB and IMA (on paper there is a clear framework on how these institutions operate with each other)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActCoordination among multiple levelsCoordination between the Governor, Coast Guard, and Polar Institute (the latter two are branches/agencies of the central government).
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordinationThere are multiple levels of governance in place; but little coordination across these levels.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemCoordination among multiple levelsFisheries management policy in New Zealand is implemented through a series of five National Fisheries Plans for deepwater, highly migratory, inshore finfish, inshore shellfish and freshwater fisheries. Managers communicate frequently. Deepwater Team is about 6 people who focus on the nation's deepwater species. This is at the national level. Management is also in the jurisdiction of the MPI Science Team, and the Department of Conservation. While all national, each team has a different scale of interest. The Minister is at a top level and takes advice from all these teams.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemCoordination among multiple levelsCentral government allocate budgets. Local government enforce legislation.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsMultiple levels: teams, regions. All coordinate frequently. One of the key aspects of this system is the high level of multiple levels coordinating with each other. EG: California Ocean Protection Council, California Fish and Game Commission, California Ocean Resources Management Program, NOAA Fisheries, Pacific Fishery Management Council, Coast Guard, National Marine Sanctuaries, etc.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Governance SystemMultiple levels but no coordination
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsThe HIMI MPA management plan is implemented by the AAD, but in coordination with AFMA, and other Australian government agencies.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanCoordination among multiple levelsThe management plan requires coordination between AFMA, CCAMLR, AAD, and other stakeholders.