|Variable Component Type||Environmental Common|
|Theme||Spatial (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||Given available technologies, how accessible is this commons to the users?|
|Select Options||1 Inaccessible, 2 Somewhat accessible, 3 Very accessible|
|Importance||Accessibility might affect the level of extraction of natural resources as well as their trade and transportation.|
This question aims to assess whether users' access to the commons is easy or difficult given existing technology.
Almost innaccessible: The commons can only be accessed with great difficulty with current technologies
Somewhat accessible: The commons can be used/controlled with some difficulty given current technology
Very accessible: The commons are easily used/controlled with current technologies"
Rutte, Claudia. 2011. “The Sacred Commons: Conflicts and Solutions of Resource Management in Sacred Natural Sites.” Biological Conservation 144, no. 10: 2387–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.017.
|Forests in Indonesia||Very accessible (3)||The accessibility of forests in Indonesia has varied substantially over time and space, however throughout the period under study, some forests in Indonesia have been very accessible to some users, and this has aided various forms of commercial and subsistence exploitation. Over time, the accessibility of some areas and its forest resources has changed with certain development policies, causing significant changes on resource use. For instance, the region of Kalimantan in the border with Malaysia in the island of Borneo was a remote region inhabited by the forest-dependent Dayak tribe and used for smuggling, but without large-scale forest use. Later, Suharto gave a very large timber concession (to PT Yamaker Corp.), covering all accessible lands within 20 km of the border, 843,500 ha in West and 265,000 ha in East Kalimantan. The corporation and its subcontractors "quickly turned the concessions into vehicles for illegal logging and cross-border trading." (Potter, 2009). In the 1990s, the first significant palm oil plantations began to emerge in the region. The construction in the early 1990s of part of the north link of the Trans-Kalimantan Highway, running close to the border, made the Danau Sentarum, a low-lying area of lakes and swamp forest, much more accesible, making it a resource frontier with increased pressure from the expansion of palm oil. In this decade, three national parks were declared in the region; in 2002 one of these parks was the first to establish collaborative governance with local government and indigenous groups (Eghenter et al. 2003). In the 2000s, the increased accessibility of the region facilitated the proposal for the largest palm oil plantation project in the world, with almost 2 million ha. The project was not developed due in part to pressures from international conservation groups. However, despite these regional dynamics, it is important to note that to this day, significant areas of forests on islands such as some regions in Borneo and Papua New Guinea remain inaccessible for commercial users and even for some subsistence users.|
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Very accessible (3)||Although Eastern ABFT are located throughout much of the Atlantic Ocean, they are easily accessible to the ocean-going fleets that target them.|
|Ozone Depleting Substances||Somewhat accessible (2)||There are still a number of ODS legally available. However, many such products have been removed from the market.|
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Very accessible (3)||Although Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna are located throughout the Western Atlantic Ocean, they are easily accessible for modern oceanic fishing fleets that target them.|
|Rhine Point source pollutants||Very accessible (3)||The Rhine river is very accessible and thus also the heavy metals|
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber||Very accessible (3)||Sea cucumbers inhabit shallow coastal waters and are conspicuous and lsow moving making them accessible given a boat and diving equipment.|
|Rhine Non-point source pollutants||Very accessible (3)||The Rhine river is very accessible and thus also the heavy metals|
|GBR coral cover||Somewhat accessible (2)||Boats are required to get to the reef. Some areas near shore are more accessible than offshore reefs.|
|GBR target fish|
|GBR target fish||Somewhat accessible (2)||Given boats, gears, and tracking technologies target fish are somewhat accessible to fishers.|
|NWHI Lobster Fishery||Somewhat accessible (2)||In general, lobster are fairly easy to catch, but the NWHI are extremely remote and the fishery is closed (and populations remain low). Traditional harvesting could be permitted with permits.|
|Wakatobi fish spawning||Very accessible (3)||These species aggregate at regular sites and times facilitating their exploitation|
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||Very accessible (3)||Without regulations, squid could be overfished by trawlers (without available technologies, very difficult to catch). Accessibility can still change based on conditions.|
|Wakatobi Green Turtle||Very accessible (3)||Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest|
|Wakatobi coral cover||Very accessible (3)||Some areas of the reef are very accessible and located near villages, other reefs are further away and require a boat to access - access is only prevented for some areas during rough weather.|
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Somewhat accessible (2)||The resource is accessible with modern forms of transportation, however, its vast distance from markets means that transportation costs might outweigh the benefits of harvesting and other activities.|
|Patagonian Toothfish||Somewhat accessible (2)||The fish are accessible as a result of the availability of ocean-going vessels that can process and store Patagonian toothfish for eventual sale on international markets (especially the US and Japan).|
|Light Mantled Albatross||Somewhat accessible (2)||Light-mantled albatross are not currently targeted by human harvesting efforts. However, they overlap with Antarctic species and may be taken as bycatch by tuna and toothfish fishers. They represented 6% of total seabird bycatch by tuna longliners between 1988-1997 in New Zealand (ACAP 2012), but less so in recent years. The Macquarie Island toothfish fisheries had zero seabird by catch (as of 2013), and the HIMI fisheries reported only 3 seabirds overall (none of which were light mantled albatross).|
|NWHI Trophic Density||Somewhat accessible (2)||By boat and plane only, with permission.|
|NWHI Green Turtle||Very accessible (3)||Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest|
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish||Very accessible (3)||Reefs are fairly close to shore|
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover||Very accessible (3)||Some areas of the reef are very accessible and located near villages, other reefs are further away and require a boat to access - access is only prevented for some areas during rough weather.|
|Galapagos Sharks||Somewhat accessible (2)||Accessible with the right equipment and regularly seen on dives|
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle||Very accessible (3)||Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest|
|Galapagos Green Turtle||Very accessible (3)||Turtles are easy to catch, both as by-catch and intentionally.|
|California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||Very accessible (3)||Users can very easily access these habitats, many times alongside coastal trails. Some areas are fenced off, while most are accessible from public land.|
|Community D Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Community B Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Community C Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Community A Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|California Humpback Whale||Somewhat accessible (2)||Humpback whales can be found tracking birds if they are feeding, GPS tracking, and listening to sonar. Whale watching companies know common feeding and migration spots.|
|California Groundfish Habitat||Somewhat accessible (2)||Accessible with the right equipment. Equipped and permitted vessels, the correct gear type, GPS devices, and other efficiency technologies make finding groundfish habitats fairly accessible, particularly with depth sounders and other oceanic viewers to search for preferred depths and bottom types.|
|Seaflower coral reefs||Very accessible (3)||SCUBA and motor powered boats|
|Community G Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Community F Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Community E Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Community H Fish Resources||Very accessible (3)|
|Svalbard Shrimp||Very accessible (3)||Current technology makes shrimp fishing relatively easy. From the mid-1990s to 2010, NAFO (2006) notes that there has been a restructuring of the fishing fleet from numerous smaller vessels to only a few large vessels, and from using one trawl to two trawls..|
|Svalbard Beluga||Somewhat accessible (2)||Modern vessels have greatly increased the ability to travel in the oceans around Svalbard, but seasonal sea ice sometimes limits vessel traffic. Technologies such as sonar can make it easier to locate the belugas, but low densities of these whales make sightings relatively uncommon.|
|Svalbard Polar Bear||Somewhat accessible (2)||When venturing outside settlements of Svalbard, persons are required to carry a rifle in case they encounter a bear, thus indicating that encounters with polar bears are reasonably common. However, navigating from the settlements to view bears specifically within the East Svalbard Nature Reserves presents challenges, and accessibility depends on sea-ice extent.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||Somewhat accessible (2)||The increase in vessel technology such as radar and GPS make is easier to locate the whales although; most whale watching takes place from land at the Head of Bight cliffs.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Benthos||Somewhat accessible (2)||The benthic communities of the GABMP (CW) are accessible with the use of technology (large boats that have equipment with appropriate substrate sampling equipment such as a benthic sled or an underwater video system).|
|Cenderwasih target fish||Very accessible (3)||Reefs are fairly close to shore|
|Seaflower groupers||Very accessible (3)||Using diving equipment and spearguns, monofilament lines, engine-powered boats, nets.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||Very accessible (3)||Easily accessible for modern oceanic fishing fleets that target them. Two - four year old SBT school near the surface waters of the Great Australian Bight and are targeted by the South Australian purse seine fishery.|
|GBR Green Turtle||Very accessible (3)||Nesting areas and foraging sites within the GBR can easily be accessed by common boats.|
|King Penguin||Somewhat accessible (2)||The resource is accessible via ships, however, its vast distance from ports means that transportation costs might outweigh the benefits of harvesting and other activities. Tourist vessels do visit King Penguin colonies on subantarctic islands (but they are not allowed to harm the birds).|
|Cenderwasih coral cover||Very accessible (3)||Generally very accessible, although some areas are further away and access can be prevented during bad weather|
|Cenderwasih green turtle||Very accessible (3)|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Very accessible (3)||Known haul out and breeding sites on land, and also often in near shore areas where fishing and recreational activities take place|
|Svalbard Kittiwake||Somewhat accessible (2)||The black-legged kittiwake is not currently targeted by human harvesting efforts on Svalbard (but is hunted on Greenland). Does not appear to be amajor by-catch species. In Svalbard, there are dense colonies on steep rock cliffs in all parts of the archipelago.|
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||Somewhat accessible (2)||Somewhat accessible being that the vessels are equipped to handle the tough conditions. But some years are more accessible than other years, for whatever reason (climate, ocean fronts). In southern waters. very tough fishing conditions. Factory trawlers are set up to withstand. Small vessels and jigging vessels could not.|
|Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals||Very accessible (3)|
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||Somewhat accessible (2)||Use various technologies and fishing history to find. But sometimes completely not accessible (likely due to oceanic conditions, believe in warm waters squid migrate too deep to catch).|
|New Zealand Sea Lion|
|Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, Indonesia||Very accessible (3)|
|Gulf of Nicoya fisheries||Very accessible (3)|
|Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil||Somewhat accessible (2)||The mangrove forest is a swamp with entangled roots in deep thick mud and requires considerable physical endurance and local knowledge to navigate for fishing. Due to the difficulties with carrying large sacks of crabs, fishers don’t go far into the forest or stray off known routes. They also access the mangrove with boats during high tide in some areas.|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.