• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeEnvironmental Common
Variable KindComponent
ThemeSpatial (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionGiven available technologies, how accessible is this commons to the users?
Select Options1 Inaccessible, 2 Somewhat accessible, 3 Very accessible
Unit
Role
ImportanceAccessibility might affect the level of extraction of natural resources as well as their trade and transportation.
Definition

This question aims to assess whether users' access to the commons is easy or difficult given existing technology.

Almost innaccessible: The commons can only be accessed with great difficulty with current technologies

Somewhat accessible: The commons can be used/controlled with some difficulty given current technology

Very accessible: The commons are easily used/controlled with current technologies"

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Tigris watershed 
Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Very accessible (3)Although Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna are located throughout the Western Atlantic Ocean, they are easily accessible for modern oceanic fishing fleets that target them.
Galapagos Sea CucumberVery accessible (3)Sea cucumbers inhabit shallow coastal waters and are conspicuous and lsow moving making them accessible given a boat and diving equipment.
Forests in IndonesiaVery accessible (3)The accessibility of forests in Indonesia has varied substantially over time and space, however throughout the period under study, some forests in Indonesia have been very accessible to some users, and this has aided various forms of commercial and subsistence exploitation. Over time, the accessibility of some areas and its forest resources has changed with certain development policies, causing significant changes on resource use. For instance, the region of Kalimantan in the border with Malaysia in the island of Borneo was a remote region inhabited by the forest-dependent Dayak tribe and used for smuggling, but without large-scale forest use. Later, Suharto gave a very large timber concession (to PT Yamaker Corp.), covering all accessible lands within 20 km of the border, 843,500 ha in West and 265,000 ha in East Kalimantan. The corporation and its subcontractors "quickly turned the concessions into vehicles for illegal logging and cross-border trading." (Potter, 2009). In the 1990s, the first significant palm oil plantations began to emerge in the region. The construction in the early 1990s of part of the north link of the Trans-Kalimantan Highway, running close to the border, made the Danau Sentarum, a low-lying area of lakes and swamp forest, much more accesible, making it a resource frontier with increased pressure from the expansion of palm oil. In this decade, three national parks were declared in the region; in 2002 one of these parks was the first to establish collaborative governance with local government and indigenous groups (Eghenter et al. 2003). In the 2000s, the increased accessibility of the region facilitated the proposal for the largest palm oil plantation project in the world, with almost 2 million ha. The project was not developed due in part to pressures from international conservation groups. However, despite these regional dynamics, it is important to note that to this day, significant areas of forests on islands such as some regions in Borneo and Papua New Guinea remain inaccessible for commercial users and even for some subsistence users.
Eastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaVery accessible (3)Although Eastern ABFT are located throughout much of the Atlantic Ocean, they are easily accessible to the ocean-going fleets that target them.
OzoneNot Applicable
Ozone Depleting SubstancesSomewhat accessible (2)There are still a number of ODS legally available. However, many such products have been removed from the market.
Rhine Point source pollutantsVery accessible (3)The Rhine river is very accessible and thus also the heavy metals
Rhine Non-point source pollutantsVery accessible (3)The Rhine river is very accessible and thus also the heavy metals
GBR coral coverSomewhat accessible (2)Boats are required to get to the reef. Some areas near shore are more accessible than offshore reefs.
fish 
GBR target fish 
GBR target fishSomewhat accessible (2)Given boats, gears, and tracking technologies target fish are somewhat accessible to fishers.
Walt's forest 
Patagonian Toothfish Somewhat accessible (2)The fish are accessible as a result of the availability of ocean-going vessels that can process and store Patagonian toothfish for eventual sale on international markets (especially the US and Japan).
NWHI Lobster FisherySomewhat accessible (2)In general, lobster are fairly easy to catch, but the NWHI are extremely remote and the fishery is closed (and populations remain low). Traditional harvesting could be permitted with permits.
Macquarie Island Royal PenguinSomewhat accessible (2)The resource is accessible with modern forms of transportation, however, its vast distance from markets means that transportation costs might outweigh the benefits of harvesting and other activities.
Light Mantled AlbatrossSomewhat accessible (2)Light-mantled albatross are not currently targeted by human harvesting efforts. However, they overlap with Antarctic species and may be taken as bycatch by tuna and toothfish fishers. They represented 6% of total seabird bycatch by tuna longliners between 1988-1997 in New Zealand (ACAP 2012), but less so in recent years. The Macquarie Island toothfish fisheries had zero seabird by catch (as of 2013), and the HIMI fisheries reported only 3 seabirds overall (none of which were light mantled albatross).
Wakatobi coral coverVery accessible (3)Some areas of the reef are very accessible and located near villages, other reefs are further away and require a boat to access - access is only prevented for some areas during rough weather.
Wakatobi Green TurtleVery accessible (3)Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest
Wakatobi fish spawningVery accessible (3)These species aggregate at regular sites and times facilitating their exploitation
Galapagos Green TurtleVery accessible (3)Turtles are easy to catch, both as by-catch and intentionally.
NWHI Trophic DensitySomewhat accessible (2)By boat and plane only, with permission.
Salmon 
Raja Ampat Reef Fish Very accessible (3)Reefs are fairly close to shore
Raja Ampat Coral CoverVery accessible (3)Some areas of the reef are very accessible and located near villages, other reefs are further away and require a boat to access - access is only prevented for some areas during rough weather.
Galapagos SharksSomewhat accessible (2)Accessible with the right equipment and regularly seen on dives
NWHI Green TurtleVery accessible (3)Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest
California Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthVery accessible (3)Users can very easily access these habitats, many times alongside coastal trails. Some areas are fenced off, while most are accessible from public land.
California Humpback WhaleSomewhat accessible (2)Humpback whales can be found tracking birds if they are feeding, GPS tracking, and listening to sonar. Whale watching companies know common feeding and migration spots.
California Groundfish HabitatSomewhat accessible (2)Accessible with the right equipment. Equipped and permitted vessels, the correct gear type, GPS devices, and other efficiency technologies make finding groundfish habitats fairly accessible, particularly with depth sounders and other oceanic viewers to search for preferred depths and bottom types.
Community D Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Community A Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Community C Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Community B Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Seaflower coral reefsVery accessible (3)SCUBA and motor powered boats
Community G Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Community E Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Community F Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Community H Fish ResourcesVery accessible (3)
Svalbard ShrimpVery accessible (3)Current technology makes shrimp fishing relatively easy. From the mid-1990s to 2010, NAFO (2006) notes that there has been a restructuring of the fishing fleet from numerous smaller vessels to only a few large vessels, and from using one trawl to two trawls..
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleSomewhat accessible (2)The increase in vessel technology such as radar and GPS make is easier to locate the whales although; most whale watching takes place from land at the Head of Bight cliffs.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaVery accessible (3)Easily accessible for modern oceanic fishing fleets that target them. Two - four year old SBT school near the surface waters of the Great Australian Bight and are targeted by the South Australian purse seine fishery.
King PenguinSomewhat accessible (2)The resource is accessible via ships, however, its vast distance from ports means that transportation costs might outweigh the benefits of harvesting and other activities. Tourist vessels do visit King Penguin colonies on subantarctic islands (but they are not allowed to harm the birds).
Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)Very accessible (3)Without regulations, squid could be overfished by trawlers (without available technologies, very difficult to catch). Accessibility can still change based on conditions.
Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Somewhat accessible (2)Somewhat accessible being that the vessels are equipped to handle the tough conditions. But some years are more accessible than other years, for whatever reason (climate, ocean fronts). In southern waters. very tough fishing conditions. Factory trawlers are set up to withstand. Small vessels and jigging vessels could not.
California market squid (Loligo opalescens)Somewhat accessible (2)Use various technologies and fishing history to find. But sometimes completely not accessible (likely due to oceanic conditions, believe in warm waters squid migrate too deep to catch).
New Zealand Sea Lion 
Cenderwasih target fishVery accessible (3)Reefs are fairly close to shore
Raja Ampat Green TurtleVery accessible (3)Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest
Svalbard Polar BearSomewhat accessible (2)When venturing outside settlements of Svalbard, persons are required to carry a rifle in case they encounter a bear, thus indicating that encounters with polar bears are reasonably common. However, navigating from the settlements to view bears specifically within the East Svalbard Nature Reserves presents challenges, and accessibility depends on sea-ice extent.
Seaflower groupersVery accessible (3)Using diving equipment and spearguns, monofilament lines, engine-powered boats, nets.
Svalbard BelugaSomewhat accessible (2)Modern vessels have greatly increased the ability to travel in the oceans around Svalbard, but seasonal sea ice sometimes limits vessel traffic. Technologies such as sonar can make it easier to locate the belugas, but low densities of these whales make sightings relatively uncommon.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) BenthosSomewhat accessible (2)The benthic communities of the GABMP (CW) are accessible with the use of technology (large boats that have equipment with appropriate substrate sampling equipment such as a benthic sled or an underwater video system).
GBR Green TurtleVery accessible (3)Nesting areas and foraging sites within the GBR can easily be accessed by common boats.
Cenderwasih coral coverVery accessible (3)Generally very accessible, although some areas are further away and access can be prevented during bad weather
Cenderwasih green turtleVery accessible (3)Turtles are easy to catch - intentionally or as bycatch. They are predicable with their nesting season when they and their eggs are easy to harvest
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionVery accessible (3)Known haul out and breeding sites on land, and also often in near shore areas where fishing and recreational activities take place
Svalbard KittiwakeSomewhat accessible (2)The black-legged kittiwake is not currently targeted by human harvesting efforts on Svalbard (but is hunted on Greenland). Does not appear to be amajor by-catch species. In Svalbard, there are dense colonies on steep rock cliffs in all parts of the archipelago.