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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionTo what extent are members of this commons user group able to exclude non-members (outsiders) from using this commons?
Select Options1 No exclusion, 2 Some exclusion, 3 Total exclusion
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceExclusion is needed in order to ensure that a commons is not over-used. Without exclusion, efforts of commons users to limit their own use of a commons may prove to be ineffective in preserving this commons if outsiders essentially act as free-riders on their efforts.
Definition

Exclusion means that members of a commons using actor group effectively prevent non-members for using a commons that they use.

Total exclusion: Users are able to prevent the great majority to all incursion by outsiders

No exclusion: Outsiders face no impediments from the user group in their attempts to use the commons.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
User group boundariesSome to total exclusion
CBNRM design principlesSome exclusion or total exclusion

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HTotal exclusion (3)Outsiders have not been observed fishing within the PHC.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNo exclusion (1)Outsiders have been regularly observed fishing within the PHC.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersSome exclusion (2)Local fishers patrol their MPAs so they are able to exclude outsiders to some extent, but often outsiders have larger boats and are armed, meaning in reality there is little they can do
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersSome exclusion (2)Local fishers patrol their MPAs so they are able to exclude outsiders to some extent, but often outsiders have larger boats and are armed, meaning in reality there is little they can do
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersSome exclusion (2)Communities are all involved in monitoring and enforcing their MPAs so they are able to exclude outsiders - although their power to exclude international IUU fishing vessels is limited
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNo exclusion (1)It is not the fishers that exclude others, but the Coast Guard. Fishers would be able to report infractions. States that are permitted to fish for shrimp in the Svalbard zone are Canada, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Russia and Norway.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNo exclusion (1)Outsiders face no impediments from the groundfish fishermen in their attempts to use the commons, as it is the agencies which exclude others.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNo exclusion (1)Recreational users have no jurisdiction over excluding others from recreational activities within the Sanctuary.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo exclusion (1)Researchers have no jurisdiction in excluding others from this commons.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersTotal exclusion (3)There has only been one recorded instance of IUU fishing in the Macquarie Island EEZ by the MV Taruman which was part of the Cambodian flagged fleet.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen 
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNo exclusion (1)Commerical fishing in the GABMP operates via a quota system, but it is not the fishers themselves who are able to exclude outsiders.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersTotal exclusion (3)The HIMI fishery operates via quota system, and as the end of this snapshot only four vessels (and two companies) hold quota to fish in the HIMI EEZ. If any others were fishing in the area (e.g, IUU) they would be reported and have to cease fishing immediately (they could be reported by a legal fishing vessel or by AFMA or the Australian Defense Force which actively surveys the area). Further, even though HIMI is within the jurisdiction of CCAMLR, other CCAMLR states cannot fish there (due to it being an AU EEZ).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo exclusion (1)Researchers have no jurisdiction in excluding others from this commons.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo exclusion (1)Fishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ENo exclusion (1)Outsiders have been found fishing within the PHC
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FSome exclusion (2)Outsiders have been found fishing within the PHC.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GTotal exclusion (3)Outsiders have not been observed fishing within the PHC.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo exclusion (1)Local communities don't really have the ability or power to exclude others. Although, there have been some instances of local communties ordering outside bagan fishers away or negotiating higher prices for access to their marine tenure.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo exclusion (1)Fishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNo exclusion (1)Fishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNo exclusion (1)Local communities don't really have the ability or power to exclude others. Although, there have been some instances of local communties ordering outside bagan fishers away or negotiating higher prices for access to their marine tenure.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BNo exclusion (1)Outsiders have been found fishing within the PHC
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenNo exclusion (1)Managers exclude participants through licenses, not fishers.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersSome exclusion (2)While the fishery is heavily limited, fishermen do not limit the licenses. However, since these are large ships, they can determine who will or will not work for them. Also, since they are Falkland based, Falkland Islanders could theoretically ban some countries from merger agreements. FITQS quota can only be held by Falkland Islands companies, unless an exemption has been granted. The ITQ generates catch entitlement that can be fished by qualifying companies with a minimum 25.1% of shares owned by Falkland Islanders. This allows for the operation of joint ventures in the fishery. Catch entitlement may be traded on a seasonal or annual basis, whereas ITQ itself can be traded by outright sale and transfer (Harte & Barton, 2007). Coded medium because of this inter-annual transfer. Ownership of the total quota, however, is limited to 30% by any one company (Arkhipkin et al. 2013b).
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersSome exclusion (2)Quota sold by government. When giving up quota, must sell to government who then sells it to a buyer (not fisher to fisher transaction). However, some companies choose to exclusively employ New Zealanders. Since vessels must be flagged by New Zealand, this company can choose which countries to partner with in joint ventures, thus some exclusion.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo exclusion (1)Recreational fishers from other states can fish in the GBRMP without a license.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNo exclusion (1)Fisheries & Reef managers hold these rights.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNo exclusion (1)Commerical fishing in the GABMP operates via a quota system, but it is not the fishers themselves who are able to exclude outsiders.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ATotal exclusion (3)Outsiders have not been observed fishing within the PHC. Approximately 1-2 outsider boats are observed per week within the LMMA.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector