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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow diverse are the institutions that are implemented by this governance system on this commons? Do these institutions vary systematically with natural variations in properties of this commons?
Select Options1 High, 2 Medium, 3 Low
Unit
Role
ImportanceOstrom (2005) has argued that institutional diversity is important for the same reason that biological diversity is important: that different institutional arrangements are frequently a response to local conditions and thus a diversity of arrangements are needed in order to adapt to a diversity of environmental conditions.
Definition

Institutional diversity is a property of a governance system that describes the extent to which this governance system contains a range of distinct institutional arrangements that vary systematically to respond to variations in the demands of environmental governance.

High: High institutional diversity means that a governance system applies a highly diverse set of institutional arrangements to match a diversity of environmental contexts.

Low: Low institutional diversity means that a governance system applies a highly homogenous set of institutional arrangements to a diversity of environmental contexts. 

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Conditions for general resilienceMedium or High
Failure of centralized controlLow
Polycentric comanagementHigh

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanHigh (1)The toothfish fishery management plan includes measures that seek to control exploitation of toothfish stocks; but also seeks to minimize impacts on other species and the environment.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005Missing
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Low (3)Focussing on no-take
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Medium (2)The Nature Reserve Management Plan includes a number of institutions designed to limit human impact, confine significant impacts to a small area of the reserve and protect the breeding areas throughout the reserve.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Low (3)The whole area is no-take
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanMedium (2)Regulations include quotas as well as measures designed to limit impacts on habitat and bycatch.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Medium (2)Rules concentrate on a complete ban on harvesting; and reduction of threats such as invasive species and regulating tourist interactions.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentLow (3)no-take zones for spawning aggregations only
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemHigh (1)Variety of zoning - mixture of taboo, traditional use, no-take, and tourism zones.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentHigh (1)Wide diversity on the PMB from fisher, tourism sector
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Low (3)Few regulations within the Park - main focus is prohibiting vessel traffic in the Marine Mammal Protection Zone of the GABMP (CW) from May 1 to October 31.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Low (3)The whole area is no-take
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemHigh (1)Focussed on zoning - mixture of taboo, traditional use, no-take, and tourism zones. Alternative to turtle meat (pigs) introduced in some villages
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemMedium (2)Variety of zoning across MPAs - fit with traditional management areas, and dive sites.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActMedium (2)There is a ban on polar bear hunting throughout all of Norway, and there are bans on visiting some of the islands and surrounding waters. There are regulations on camping, land use, and pollution
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentLow (3)Protection of nesting beaches is main method of protection. Through CITES trade of turtles is prohibited
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActHigh (1)Numbers of vessels; number of fishing days; Minimum cod-end mesh size (35 mm); mandatory sorting grids; temporary closing of areas with excessive by-catch of other important commercial species, e.g. juvenile cod, haddock, Greenland halibut. NAFO SCR Doc. 12/51
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Low (3)Few regulations within the Park - main focus is prohibiting vessel traffic in the Marine Mammal Protection Zone of the GABMP (CW) from May 1 to October 31.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanHigh (1)The groundfish management plan identifies a number of agencies, e.g. NMFS, state Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of the Interior. They manage this commons through gear restrictions, limited access (permits, IFQs), area closures and depth closures. Foreign vessels are restricted and quotas are allocated according to historical activity. Some species have seasonal limitations.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance System 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanHigh (1)The Marine Park Management Plan includes a number of restrictions that collectively aim to protect habitat and species within the MPA. These range from ban on harvesting, prohibitions against discharge from boats, and technological prohibitions.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)Low (3)Limited area (one environmental context), effort-based management means that institutional diversity is low. One management context that applies to one area.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanMedium (2)The Fisheries Management Plan includes a variety of seabird bycatch mitigation measures, including those developed by CCAMLR. These include: area closures (e.g., the HIMI MPA), longline weighting (CCAMLR Conservation Measure 24-02), the use of streamer lines, restrictions on time of day for setting gear, prohibition of dumping offal and discards, etc. (CCAMLR Conservation Measure 25-02 and CCAMLR Conservation Measure 25-03). Additionally, all fishing vessels must carry two AFMA fisheries observers who then provide data on seabird presence and interaction with the fishery.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentHigh (1)Wide diversity on the PMB from fisher, tourism sector
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentHigh (1)The GBR is a single MPA with many different types of zones, where different types of activities are permitted in each zone. Other management tools involve a ban on hunting and requirements for turtle excluder devices.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMedium (2)AAD is the only institution involved in management of King Penguins and management focuses on limiting human use through a variety of arrangements (e.g, protecting nesting sites, limiting human visitation, rules for interaction with the penguins, protecting foraging grounds.).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System High (1)There are a number of various agencies and institutions that coordinate protection of whales (Sanctuary office, Coast Guard, NMFS). Ship strikes are decreased by discussion with industry, while boats (e.g. whale watching vessels) are enforced for their adherence to the Marine Mammal Act (keeping a distance, not changing behavior). Ship groundings, oil spills, and marine debris are threats actively managed for. The Sanctuary works with military to reduce military threats (e.g. acoustics, trainings in hot spots).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMedium (2)The HIMI Marine Reserve Management Plan has a variety of institutions designed to protect migratory species, including no take areas (which protect foraging grounds), requirement of permits to visit the island and protection of nesting sites as off limits.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanMedium (2)Regulations include technological prohibitions within the species protection zone and bans within the highly protected zone.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanHigh (1)A number of institutions are used to conserve Royal Penguins, including bans on harvesting, spatial and temporal restrictions on interactions between tourists and Royal Penguins and other habitat conservation rules.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentHigh (1)There are multiple institutions applied to the commons, e.g., spatial mgt, gear mgt, size and effort mgt, and seasonal closures for some species.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005MissingNO DATA
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentLow (3)Zoning is the main mechanism for managing coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentLow (3)Zoning is the main mechanism for managing coral reefs
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System High (1)Multiple agencies have jurisdiction over rocky intertidal activities (Sanctuary, CDFW, NMFS). Local authorities can enforce poaching. Sanctuary offices work with agriculture and desalination plants to ensure reduced threats to this ecosystem. Some areas are protected from any public use.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentHigh (1)Wide diversity on the PMB from fisher, government and tourism sector
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Low (3)There are fairly limited restrictions within the MPA - there is a ban on trawl fishing, and seasonal restrictions during southern right whale calving. no commercial fishing in the Marine Mammal Protection Zone from May 1 - October 31 and no demersal trawling in the Benthic Protection Zone.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemLow (3)Zoning is the main instiution: the main zones are core, marine protection, tourism, traditional, special, with the majority of the park designated as general.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Low (3)All use of toothfish resources is banned within the marine portion of the nature reserve.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActMedium (2)All traffic is forbidden in bird sanctuaries between 15 May and 15 August. Tourists visiting Svalbard pay an environment fee to the Svalbard Environmental Protection Fund that supports initiatives that preserve Svalbard’s unique wilderness and cultural heritage (Governor of Svalbard 2010).
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanLow (3)CDFW has jurisdiction over all state waters, all habitats. One governance structure for all California habitats.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemLow (3)Zoning is the main instiution: the main zones are core, marine protection, tourism, traditional, special, with the majority of the park designated as general.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemMedium (2)Governance system applies same regulations exist for all squid FMAs. Regulations do not depend on ecosystem or depth. Regulations for sea lion capture do focus on 6T (Auckland) region, so this is diverse. But generally same regulations for all regions. General national management recognizes various users: Maori people, commercial, foreign fleet, recreational. It also imposes different teams for various ecosystems (deepwater, inshore, high migratory species, aquaculture). Deepwater team focuses on squid and other deepwater species, so this is why it is considered medium. Deepwater team focuses on squid even though juveniles can be caught <200m from the surface.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanLow (3)With regards to fishing, the MPA is a completely no take zone, with the exception of a smaller "Conservation Zone" where more research is needed to assess its value to the MPA and its implications to the HIMI fishery.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanHigh (1)The toothfish fishery management plan includes a wide variety of measures that seek to control exploitation of toothfish stocks, while also minimizing impacts on other species and the environment.