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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow much heterogeneity is there in the bundle of rights granted to the members of this group with respect to this commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Moderate, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceSome heterogeneity may be required in order to create leadership positions with more authority with respect to a commons. However, high heterogeneity of property rights may require significantly more transaction costs in achieving collective action (Schlager and Ostrom 1992).
Definition

This variable records whether some actors have substantially more types of rights (expressed in the ActorRightsType variable) than others. For example, low heterogeneity would mean that all or most actors are provided the same bundles of rights. High heterogeneity would mean that a few actors have more expansive bundles of rights (such as management, exclusion, transfer, etc.) than most members.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Some heterogeneity based on traditional and customary marine tenure
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Some heterogeneity based on traditional and customary marine tenure
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersHigh (3)Different nations have different allowances for the number of vessels and the number of fishing days allowed.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersLow (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)Rights are allocated based on historical activity, but generally this is heterogeneous despite the gap between historical fishers and new fishers.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)All researchers have same access, though some have stronger relationships with permit allocators.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorModerate (2)Different permits for different boats
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerate (2)Rights to capture light-mantled are granted in relation to level of effort (number of hooks set). Because one group owns a greater share of quotas this corresponds to a right to capture a larger number of light-mantled albatross as bycatch.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersModerate (2)All fishers require a permit and are subject to the same rules but commercial fishers can hold varying rights of the quota.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Some heterogeneity based on traditional and customary marine tenure
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)All researchers have same access, though some have stronger relationships with permit allocators.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerate (2)One company holds rights to 70% of the quota; and the other group 30%
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)All fishers require a permit and are subject to the same rules within the MPA.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Some heterogeneity based on traditional and customary marine tenure
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)Some heterogeneity based on traditional and customary marine tenure
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersModerate (2)Companies can not have more than 45% of the quota. 7 companies total with varying amounts. SeaLords biggest.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenLow (1)Equal rights throughout fishers. Catch limit is not allocated by vessel or company, but by entire fleet.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerate (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism 
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Rights are per vessel, same rights to all vessels (regardless of quota).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersModerate (2)The joint-venture allows more even rights, but the Falkland Islands own the quota. Parent company had to have at least 51% of shares owned by Falklands residents. Ownership of the total quota, however, is limited to 30% by any one company. Some have more quota than others, but similar. ITQ in the D. gahi fishery is held by seven companies with their share ranging from 4·4 to 27·5%. (Arkhipkin et al. 2013)