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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
QuestionWhat is the approximate distance between the boundaries of this governance system and the nearest market in which the commons within this system are sold? (Only answer this question if commons are sold).
Select Options1 Less than 10km, 2 Between 10-100km, 3 Between 100km-1000km, 4 More than 1000km
ImportanceClose resource markets can encourage high levels of exploitation. Proximity to markets has been linked to lower fish biomass on coral reefs (Cinner 2013). This variable is often used as a proxy for market pressure in a resource (see also the "markets" variable) (Agrawal and Yadama 1997).
DefinitionCalculate or estimate the shortest distance from the governance boundary to the nearest market for the resources contained within the system. Major market could be a trading centre, large town or provincial capital and even a local middleman, but does not refer to local subsistence use.

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Cinner, JE., Graham, NAJ., Hutchery, C., and MacNeil, MA. (2009) Global effects of local human population density and distance to markets on the condition of coral reef fisheries. Conservation Biology 27 (3): 453-458

Agrawal, Arun, and Gautam N Yadama. 1997. “How Do Local Institutions Mediate Market and Population Pressures on Resources? Forest Panchayats in Kumaon, India.” Development and Change 28 (3): 435–465.

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Less than 10km (1)National and international markets are distributed through the GBR region though certain markets (e.g., Bowen) are preferred.
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentLess than 10km (1)
Wakatobi National Park 2008-currentBetween 100km-1000km (3)Nearest city is Bau-Bau on Buton Island - this is approximately 120km
NWHI Monument Act 2006Between 100km-1000km (3)Closest market is Main Hawaiian Islands, however there is no resource extraction currently allowed in the NWHI.
Raja Ampat Governance SystemBetween 10-100km (2)Major city is Sarong - considered the 'gateway to Raja Ampat' - West Papua (it has a port and airport) Distance to Sorong from MPA boundaries varies as it is a network - shortest distance is from Dampier Strait MPA and is ~10km
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System Less than 10km (1)Local seafood supplied to local buyers and restaurants. Whale watching companies less then 10km from whale hot spots.
Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan 
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan More than 1000km (4)Macquarie island is more than 1000km from the nearest fisheries markets.
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActBetween 100km-1000km (3)The closest mainland town to Svalbard is Tromso (about 33,000 people), which is 900km away. The distance from Svalbard to Oslo (the capital and largest city of Norway) is about 2000km.
Seaflower MPA Act 2005Between 100km-1000km (3)Major market is located on the San Andres Island.
Galapagos Governance System 1998-currentLess than 10km (1)local markets within the GMR, e.g. Puerto Ayora. Distane to external market - Guayaquil - Ecuador's largest city and main sea port (most important Industrial and commercial center of the country) is ~1000km.
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanMore than 1000km (4)Macquarie Island is located approximately 1500km from Tasmania. However, the only harvested species (Patagonian toothfish) serve mostly the Japanese and US markets.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Between 100km-1000km (3)Port Lincoln is the largest nearby city and is home to the tuna fishing fleets of the GAB.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanMore than 1000km (4)HIMI is located ~4000km from Western Australia and major markets (the USA, Japan, China) are even further away.
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanMore than 1000km (4)HIMI is more than 4000km away from mainland Australia. Toothfish are either landed in Australian ports or Mauritius (off of South Africa). But the main markets are even further away - in the United States, Japan and China (see AFMA 2014).
Cenderwasih governance systemBetween 10-100km (2)Manokwari - capital of West Papua Province ~95km
The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)More than 1000km (4)A predominantly European market (over 11,000 km away) - 93% is exported to Europe (mostly Spain). 7% is exported to South Africa is over 6,000 km away. 0.46% is exported to Asia (mostly India) (OEC 2014)
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanLess than 10km (1)A minor portion is sold locally. Most are sold more than 1000 km away.
New Zealand Quota Management SystemLess than 10km (1)Squid is found in New Zealand markets frozen (MPI 2016). As well as are sold globally (primary industry)/.
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilBetween 10-100km (2)
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture 
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingNot Applicable
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaBetween 10-100km (2)
Sasi in Tomolol, Misool  
Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanLess than 10km (1)Local: less than 10km