|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||What is the approximate distance between the boundaries of this governance system and the nearest market in which the commons within this system are sold? (Only answer this question if commons are sold).|
|Select Options||1 Less than 10km, 2 Between 10-100km, 3 Between 100km-1000km, 4 More than 1000km|
|Importance||Close resource markets can encourage high levels of exploitation. Proximity to markets has been linked to lower fish biomass on coral reefs (Cinner 2013). This variable is often used as a proxy for market pressure in a resource (see also the "markets" variable) (Agrawal and Yadama 1997).|
|Definition||Calculate or estimate the shortest distance from the governance boundary to the nearest market for the resources contained within the system. Major market could be a trading centre, large town or provincial capital and even a local middleman, but does not refer to local subsistence use.|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||Less than 10km (1)||National and international markets are distributed through the GBR region though certain markets (e.g., Bowen) are preferred.|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||Less than 10km (1)|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||Between 100km-1000km (3)||Nearest city is Bau-Bau on Buton Island - this is approximately 120km|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||Between 100km-1000km (3)||Closest market is Main Hawaiian Islands, however there is no resource extraction currently allowed in the NWHI.|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||Between 10-100km (2)||Major city is Sarong - considered the 'gateway to Raja Ampat' - West Papua (it has a port and airport) Distance to Sorong from MPA boundaries varies as it is a network - shortest distance is from Dampier Strait MPA and is ~10km|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||Less than 10km (1)||Local seafood supplied to local buyers and restaurants. Whale watching companies less then 10km from whale hot spots.|
|Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan|
|Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan||More than 1000km (4)||Macquarie island is more than 1000km from the nearest fisheries markets.|
|Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan||Less than 10km (1)||Local: less than 10km|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||Between 100km-1000km (3)||The closest mainland town to Svalbard is Tromso (about 33,000 people), which is 900km away. The distance from Svalbard to Oslo (the capital and largest city of Norway) is about 2000km.|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||Between 100km-1000km (3)||Major market is located on the San Andres Island.|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||Less than 10km (1)||local markets within the GMR, e.g. Puerto Ayora. Distane to external market - Guayaquil - Ecuador's largest city and main sea port (most important Industrial and commercial center of the country) is ~1000km.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||More than 1000km (4)||Macquarie Island is located approximately 1500km from Tasmania. However, the only harvested species (Patagonian toothfish) serve mostly the Japanese and US markets.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||Between 100km-1000km (3)||Port Lincoln is the largest nearby city and is home to the tuna fishing fleets of the GAB.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||More than 1000km (4)||HIMI is located ~4000km from Western Australia and major markets (the USA, Japan, China) are even further away.|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||More than 1000km (4)||HIMI is more than 4000km away from mainland Australia. Toothfish are either landed in Australian ports or Mauritius (off of South Africa). But the main markets are even further away - in the United States, Japan and China (see AFMA 2014).|
|Cenderwasih governance system||Between 10-100km (2)||Manokwari - capital of West Papua Province ~95km|
|The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)||More than 1000km (4)||A predominantly European market (over 11,000 km away) - 93% is exported to Europe (mostly Spain). 7% is exported to South Africa is over 6,000 km away. 0.46% is exported to Asia (mostly India) (OEC 2014)|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan||Less than 10km (1)||A minor portion is sold locally. Most are sold more than 1000 km away.|
|New Zealand Quota Management System||Less than 10km (1)||Squid is found in New Zealand markets frozen (MPI 2016). As well as are sold globally (primary industry)/.|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||Between 10-100km (2)|
|Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||Not Applicable|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||Between 10-100km (2)|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.