• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDo external actors/organizations monitor the activities of this commons using actor group with respect to the use of this commons?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceWithout monitoring, members of this actor group may not face costs of breaking commons management rules, creating an incentive to overuse the commons, leading to negative commons outcomes. A large body of literature has confirmed that monitoring, particularly when combined with sanctioning, is extremely important for the successful commons management.
Definition

This variable captures whether or not the actions of this commons using actor group are monitored by agents or organizations that are not members of this group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Bans and perverse incentivesYes
EnforcementYes (or substituted with self monitoring)
Critique of fortress conservationYes
Ecological effectiveness of MPAsYes
Centralized conservationYes
Pigouvian taxesYes
Payment for ecosystem services (PES)Yes
Numeric managementYes
EcolabelsYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HNo
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNo
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesMonitoring by AFMA fisheries managers and those enforcing the GABMP (CW) regulations.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesThere is some monitoring by the management actor on compliance
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesThe actions of fishers are monitored by AFMA observers which self-report information to MSC for certification purposes.
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersYesMonitoring by Fisheries Queensland and the agencies managing the MPA. But recreational fishers don't direclty use corals, but might fish species that affect corals
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesMonitoring/enforcement within MPAs is conducted by community patrols - with support from NGOs and Navy - so some external monitoring
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersYesFishers are mandated to keep a log book which are used by the Resource Managers to help determine the status of the stock and to set appropriate regulations - not maintaining the log book correctly results in penalties. The Coast Guard patrols the protection zone.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesToothfish fishers are monitored by AFMA observers and indirectly by the Marine Stewardship Council.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenYesCDFW and the PFMC monitor fishing activity. Coast Guard and Sanctuary officers also ensure that fishing does not occur in closed areas. Quotas and gear types are closely monitored.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesResearchers do not use humpback whales in the form of "taking" but instead monitor and observe them. However, the peer-review process monitors the activities of researchers on humpbacks in this area.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersYesMonitoring by Fisheries Queensland and the agencies managing the MPA
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYesYes, the Resource Managers. The Governor of Svalbard is responsible for monitoring, but is assisted by the Coast Guard.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersYesThe Sanctuary, Coast Guard, and NMFS monitor recreational users and enforce any law violations.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesThere is some monitoring by the management actor on compliance
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers All commercial vessels have a VMS (vessel monitoring system), which allows satellite tracking of their movements. Managers may use this to determine compliance with the various protected area zones. Managers also monitor gear regulations to ensure the appropriate regulations are being followed (including an appropriate turtle excluder device or bycatch reduction device).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesMonitoring by AFMA fisheries managers and those enforcing the GABMP (CW) regulations.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYesYes, the Resource Managers. The Governor of Svalbard is responsible for monitoring, and is assisted by the Coast Guard.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenYesCDF conducts monitoring of environmental commons. Parks Service conducts some monitoring of compliance.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ENo
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GNo
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesThere is some monitoring by the management actor on compliance
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FNo
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesPermits are issued by the Sanctuary superintendent.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesThere is some monitoring by the management actor on compliance
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesMonitoring by Fisheries managers and those enforcing the GBRMPA rules
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesMonitoring/enforcement within MPAs is conducted by community patrols - with support from NGOs and Navy - so some external monitoring
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesMonitoring of nesting beaches is conducted by NGOs with some support from community members (fishermen), so there is some external monitoring
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesAFMA, as well as CCAMLR, monitors the fishers through fisheries observers, VMS, port and trade measures and other measures.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesThere is some monitoring by the management actor on compliance
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BNo
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesPrimarily observers. MPI invests heavily in monitoring fishing activity and in encouraging and enforcing compliance with the law. Fishery Officers patrol New Zealand’s coastline to ensure all fishers comply with the rules. Fishing vessels are also monitored at sea using satellite technology, aeroplanes, and patrol boats, to ensure their crew follow the rules. In addition, Ministry Observers are periodically placed on fishing boats to monitor and record what fishers catch, and any interactions with seabirds, marine mammals or protected corals (Sustainable Fisheries 2016).
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYesManagers from CDFW monitor, as well as do buyers and harbormasters (informally). Government enforcers on land and on vessels. No observer program.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersYesFalkland Islands Fisheries Fisheries Department (especially observers) highly monitor location and catch of vessels (check position 3 times a day).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesMonitoring by AFMA fisheries managers and those enforcing the GABMP (CW) regulations - although currenlty no limits on bycatch of sealions
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ANoVery little external monitoring takes place
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesHIMI toothfish fishers are monitored by Fisheries Observers and the AFMA, with additional ongoing surveillance by the Australian Defense Force. They are also indirectly monitored by the Marine Stewardship Council, through which they have a fishing sustainability certification.