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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionDoes this commons using actor group receive external support (subsidies, logistics, scientific information) from external groups (NGOs, governmental agencies).
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceExternal support can aid a local group by providing services and functions that they couldn't obtain otherwise, but it can also lead to negative outcomes (e.g. through perverse agricultural subsidies) and can crowd out local incentives for commons users to self-organize.
Definition

External support to a commons user group can involve financing/subsidies, new infrastructure, information,  or any other resource that is designed to alter the ways in which the commons user group interacts with their environment.

This variable is similar to the variable "external support", but it is specific to support provided to a commons user group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesHuge support from local goverment and International NGOs, in terms of funding (for patrols of the MPA), and education provision
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersYesFrom Spanish Government (fuel and construction)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesHuge support from local goverment and International NGOs, in terms of funding (for patrols of the MPA), and education provision and training
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYesGuidlines and advice provided by AECO.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNo
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesExternal support is received from the Coalition of Legal Toothfish Operators and the Marine Stewardship Council. Both help advocate for this fishery as legal and sustainable.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoVery limited support to the Bajau - socially and economically marginalised group, further exacerbated in the Wakatobi through measures designed to improve MPA effectiveness, particularly with regard to economic incentives (Clifton 2013).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenYesScientific information is accessible to groundfish fishermen, as well as maps from the Sanctuary for users.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesSupport from Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna: http://www.ccsbt.org/site/ - the CCSBT is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management of southern bluefin tuna throughout its distribution.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesThe Sanctuary office provides information and access to researchers. Other agencies e.g. Coast Guard and NGOs e.g. Oceana work with researchers.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersYesThe Sanctuary provides maps, pamphlets, and other material to recreational users.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesGovernement agencies provide support with regard to avoiding entanglement and an appropriate disentanglement response to be implemented when required. Support from Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna: http://www.ccsbt.org/site/ - the CCSBT is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management of southern bluefin tuna throughout its distribution.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesThis group receives support from the AFMA and marine stewardship council with regards to strategies to limit bycatch, manage the fishery, and earn premiums because of MSC certification.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesExtensive support from international NGOs (CI and TNC) - CI introduced pigs to villages as an alternative communal protein source, this included training and expert advice from veterinary professionals on how to raise pigs in the local environment. Support from churches to declare turtle-free Christmas/Easter (M.Erdmann pers ocmm)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorYesScientific advice (e.g. CDF make much of their research public) provided to tourism operators, and there is some requirement for all tours to include a naturalist guide - and I believe this concept was instigated by WWF/CI (?) and they trained the first set of guides (many ex-fishermen)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoVery limited support to the Bajau - socially and economically marginalised group, further exacerbated in the Wakatobi through measures designed to improve MPA effectiveness, particularly with regard to economic incentives (Clifton 2013).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesThe Sanctuary office provides information and access to researchers. Other agencies e.g. Coast Guard and NGOs e.g. Oceana work with researchers.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesWWF and some local NGOs are working in the area
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesSubsidies are provided by the Australian government; they also receive support from the coalition of legal toothfish operators and Marine Stewardship Council.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismYesMembers of AECO receive support in terms of education, advice, and a collective voice for management http://www.aeco.no/resources-and-tools/
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesScientific data on corals and fisheries are publicly available to commercial fishers groups
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenYesWhile fishery was open they had access to scientific advice for sustainable management of the fishery. Now ther fishery is closed there is support for alternative livelihoods provided by management and NGOs - including economic incentives and training- Galapagos Report 2011-2012
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesWWF and some local NGOs are working in the area
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoVery limited support to the Bajau - socially and economically marginalised group, further exacerbated in the Wakatobi through measures designed to improve MPA effectiveness, particularly with regard to economic incentives (Clifton 2013).
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYesNGO: California Wetfish Producers Association provides support Harbormaster: Provides weather information and other logistical support Government: Provides scientific information
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesScientific report yes, from NGOs. Observers for tracking from government.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesSupport from Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna: http://www.ccsbt.org/site/ - the CCSBT is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management of southern bluefin tuna throughout its distribution.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismYesYes there is some support from NGOs as they were keen for tourism to be a main revenue stream for Raja Ampat. Support from government - home-stays are given a tax break (must be run entirely by local community members)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNoRepresentative organisations have access to available scientific knowledge, however, the majority of rec fishers are not supported directly by external agents
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesScientific information mainly
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersYesThis group receives support from the AFMA, AAD, CCAMLR and the Marine Stewardship Council with regards to information and strategies to limit bycatch, manage the fishery, and earn premiums (through MSC certification).