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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeText
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBasic (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionIn what year was this governance system implemented?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceTogether with the “GSEndDate” variable, this variable provides the information on the longevity of the governance system. From the theoretical perspective, the longer the governance system has been in existence, the more robust it is likely to be (Ostrom 2005).
Definition

The year in which the governance system that is being analyzed came into effect.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
ICCAT Governance System1969ICCAT was created in 1966, but did not begin formal activities until 1969
Montreal Protocol1989The Montreal Protocol entered into force on January 1st, 1989. Since then a variety of amendments have been proposed and accepted which have tended to accelerate the rate of implementation.
Pre-Montreal Protocol Ozone Governance1977There is no clear date for the beginning of ozone goverance. We have chosen 1977 as this is the start of our first snapshot as this is the year that international scientific efforts began with a conference of experts from 32 countries.
"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-20121998This governance system began after the fall of Suharto's dictatorship in 1998.
Rhine Chemicals Convention1976It was adopted by ICPR members in 1976 but actually only minimally implemented
Rhine Action Plan1987
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-19991975The 1975 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) Act established the marine park and the park’s authority (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, GBRMPA).
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current2004The year in which the re-zoning took place
"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-19981965This governance system began with a political crisis in 1965 that enabled Suharto, then the head of the military, to begin undermining the rule of Sukarno, the previous ruler of Indonesia. The transition to Suharto's dictatorship took 3 years, ending in 1968 when Suharto took full control of the government.
NWHI Monument Act 20062006June 15, 2006 Pres. Bush signed the Presidential Proclamation 8031 to create the Monument.
Wakatobi National Park 2008-current2008The year re-zoning and new management plan issued
Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan1982Implemented by the PFMC
GMR governance system 1998-current1998Galapagos Special Law (GSL) passed in 1998, created the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Galapagos Marine Reserve Management Plan (GMRMP) approved in 1999. The Special Law is closely intertwined with the creation of the GMR, and therefore they are coded together as a single governance system. The GSL was created with extensive consultation and participation from the public and stakeholders.
Magnuson-Stevens Act1976
Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan1994A trial fishery was begun in 1994.
Community E Governance System2002PHC management was initiated in 2002.
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan 1978The land area was initially protected in 1933; the reserve was extended to 3 nautical miles and its present form in 1978.
Community D Governance System2010PHC was initially established in 2010.
Community A Governance System2005
Community C Governance System2010PHC management was initiated in 2010.
Community B Governance System2009
Raja Ampat Governance System2009Coded from 2009 when the MPA boundaries were extended and the Network fulfilled our size requirements
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System 1981The Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary was the first of the 3 Central California sanctuaries to be designated under the authority of Title III of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, Public Law 92– 532 (the Act) in 1981. The Management Plan was not incorporated until 1987. Cordell Bank NMS was designated 1989 and Monterey Bay NMS was designated in 1992. This snapshot begins in 1992. The most recent management plans and joint Environmental Impact Statement are from 2008. In 2015, a major expansion of the GFNMS and CBNMS increased the area significantly.
Seaflower MPA Act 20052005After 5 years of multi-stakeholder involvement, led by CORALINA, the Minister of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development declared the Seaflower MPA.
Community F Governance System2011Governance of {PHC was initiated in 2011.
Community G Governance System2010PHC management was initiated in 2010.
Community H Governance System2005PHC management was initiated in 2005.
Svalbard Environmental Protection Act2002The Act of 2001 came into effect on July 1, 2002.
Galapagos Governance System 1998-current1998Galapagos Special Law (GSL) passed in 1998, created the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Galapagos Marine Reserve Management Plan (GMRMP) approved in 1999. The Special Law is closely intertwined with the creation of the GMR, and therefore they are coded together as a single governance system. The GSL was created with extensive consultation and participation from the public and stakeholders.
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan2001Marine park was designated in 1999; became effective in 2001.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 20122000The first management plan came into force on 17 May 2000
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan2005This Australian Commonwealth MPA was declared in 2002 under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The management plan also includes provisions applicable to the Heard and McDonald Islands World Heritage properties, important wetlands, and threatened and migratory species.
Cenderwasih governance system2002When the park was officially designated.
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan2002The Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan 2002 is implemented under the 1991 Fisheries Management Act amended in 2011. The Management Plan includes the trawl fishery for Mackerel Icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) and the trawl, longline and pot fishery for Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides). An increasing amount of the toothfish catch has been taken via longline rather than trawl (which used to be the primary fishing means).
The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)1986Established by the Falkland Islands Government on October 26 1986 (Barton et al. 2004). First official fishing season was in 1987 (became effective February 1 1987) (Joint 1990).
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan2005
New Zealand Quota Management System1986October 1986 (snapshot is when squid was introduced, 1987) 1983 Fisheries Act established the QMS.