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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat is the trend in biodiversity of this natural resource system during the time frame for which the governance  system has been in place?
Select Options1 Worsened, 2 Mixed effects or remained the same, 3 improved
Unit
Role
ImportanceIn general, strong indicators of biodiversity in terms of species richness or species diversity have been correlated with the ability of a ecosystem to persist during periods of disturbance (Walker et al. 1992). At the same time, disturbance can be an important driver of biodiversity (Hughes et al. 2007). Species richness tends to be more pronounced in latitudes closer to the equator, and may be less important in areas such as the Arctic, where species abundance and redundancy over extended areas or genetic diversity within species may provide similar levels of resilience against disturbance (CAFF 2013).
Definition

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life, including genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation within an area. This question seeks to ascertain the trend (in a qualitative sense) in biodiversity of the resource during the time period following the creation of a governance system.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Gilded trapsWorsened
Metric diversity, biodiversity loss and resilienceWorsened
Conditions for general resilienceRemain the same or Improved

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)biodiversity was not directly measured in this system, however we assume that a dramatic decline in forest cover correlates with a concurrent decline in biodiversity.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)There are no detailed surveys of biodiversity available, but there does seem to be evidence that forest cover decline has led to associated declines in biodiversity.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)The governance system has not affected most of the factors that affect coral cover.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)The governance system has not affected most of the factors that affect coral cover, the proxy we are using for biodiversity.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityMixed effects or remained the same (2)No change in trophic density, but maintained at near pristine levels
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Habitatimproved (3)With limited trawling, biodiversity is thought to have increased (*Need to find more concrete studies on this). Groundfish species richness has been modeled to increase in California MPAs (Levin et al. 2009).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthMixed effects or remained the same (2)At the beginning of this time series, many key species (e.g. pilaster ochraceus) were in decline, but continued to decline. However, species such as red abalone and black abalone appear to have stayed the same (Micheli et al. 2008). However, during the designation of the Sanctuary as well as within the most current condition reports, high levels of biodiversity have been reported and commented upon.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Across the park for this snap shot there has been no clear change in coral cover (interview pers comm), although prior to this snapshot there were large declines in coral cover.