|Variable Component Type||Natural Resource System|
|Theme||Outcomes (learn about themes)|
|Question||What is the trend in biodiversity of this natural resource system during the time frame for which the governance system has been in place?|
|Select Options||1 Worsened, 2 Mixed effects or remained the same, 3 improved|
|Importance||In general, strong indicators of biodiversity in terms of species richness or species diversity have been correlated with the ability of a ecosystem to persist during periods of disturbance (Walker et al. 1992). At the same time, disturbance can be an important driver of biodiversity (Hughes et al. 2007). Species richness tends to be more pronounced in latitudes closer to the equator, and may be less important in areas such as the Arctic, where species abundance and redundancy over extended areas or genetic diversity within species may provide similar levels of resilience against disturbance (CAFF 2013).|
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life, including genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation within an area. This question seeks to ascertain the trend (in a qualitative sense) in biodiversity of the resource during the time period following the creation of a governance system.
|Metric diversity, biodiversity loss and resilience||Worsened|
|Conditions for general resilience||Remain the same or Improved|
|Case||Interaction Type||Component||Value Used||Explanation|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||Worsened (1)||biodiversity was not directly measured in this system, however we assume that a dramatic decline in forest cover correlates with a concurrent decline in biodiversity.|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||Worsened (1)||There are no detailed surveys of biodiversity available, but there does seem to be evidence that forest cover decline has led to associated declines in biodiversity.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi coral cover||Mixed effects or remained the same (2)||Across the park for this snap shot there has been no clear change in coral cover (interview pers comm), although prior to this snapshot there were large declines in coral cover.|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih coral cover||Mixed effects or remained the same (2)|
|Caete-Teperacu Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Braganca, Brazil||Governance||Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil||Missing|
|Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governance||Governance||Gulf of Nicoya fisheries||Missing|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||Mixed effects or remained the same (2)||The governance system has not affected most of the factors that affect coral cover.|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||Mixed effects or remained the same (2)||The governance system has not affected most of the factors that affect coral cover, the proxy we are using for biodiversity.|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Trophic Density||Mixed effects or remained the same (2)||No change in trophic density, but maintained at near pristine levels|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||Mixed effects or remained the same (2)||At the beginning of this time series, many key species (e.g. pilaster ochraceus) were in decline, but continued to decline. However, species such as red abalone and black abalone appear to have stayed the same (Micheli et al. 2008). However, during the designation of the Sanctuary as well as within the most current condition reports, high levels of biodiversity have been reported and commented upon.|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Groundfish Habitat||improved (3)||With limited trawling, biodiversity is thought to have increased (*Need to find more concrete studies on this). Groundfish species richness has been modeled to increase in California MPAs (Levin et al. 2009).|
|Pond aquaculture on Lombok, Indonesia||Governance||Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals||Not Applicable|
|Pond aquaculture on Lombok, Indonesia||Governance||Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals|
|Gili Trawangan Coastal Tourism||Governance||Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, Indonesia||Missing|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.