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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeTechnology (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionIs overcapitalization (e.g. excessive fishing capacity that overwhelms renewal rates of fish or another natural resource) a problem for this user group?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
Importance"This variable is important because overcapitalization may cause the depletion of common-pool resources such as the fish stock (Botsford et al. 1997, Pauly et al. 2002). In fisheries, the term overcapitalization, overcapacity or excess capacity indicates a level of catching power that exceeds what is needed to catch available fishery resources (Greboval and Munro 1999). The overcapitalization of world fisheries is a significant contributor to the overexploitation of world fishery resources (Botsford et al. 1997, Pauly et al. 2002). Reasons advanced for the overcapitalization of the world's fisheries include: the open-access nature of many fisheries, fisheries that are managed non-cooperatively; sole-ownership fisheries with high discount rates and/or high price-to-cost ratios, the increasing replacement of small-scale fishing vessels with larger ones, and the payment of subsidies by governments to fishers, which generate profits even when resources are overfished (Pauly et al. 2002). In the irrigation sector, buying or holding too much agricultural land relative to the availability of water would be another example."
Definition

Overcapitalization is an economic term that refers to the phenomenon of giving to an asset a higher value than its “real” economic value. This in turn puts a strain on attempts to obtain a sustainable return on investment.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Gilded trapsYes
Subsidies and perverse incentivesYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaNo
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaYesOver investment in log processing facilities in the 1980s (encouraged by subsidies) encouraged high harvesting throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursYesovercapitalization of wood processing faciliities has contributed to the existence of a ready local market for ilelgally harvested forest products, which many local entrpreneurs are satisfying.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesNoThis is a problem for extractive industries, but not for this group.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaYesoverinvestment in timber processing facilities during the 1990s led to pressure to increase harvesting during this period.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HNo
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNoNot anymore with the quota system and high monitoring.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMissing
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNoNot for coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersYesGovernment apply sanctions to commercial fishers breaking fishing regulation or zoning rules
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DNo
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesNoNo.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNoBuy-outs in the industry reduced the capacity of the fishery, which is now largely considered sustainable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNo
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoOnly 2 companies and 3 boats are permitted to operate in the fishery at any one time
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNo
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenYesExcessive fishing capacity, more boats and fishermen than the stocks can sustain - main reason for fishery collapse
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMissingPopulation is increasing. No clear data on whether access to destructive gear like dynamite has changed.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesYes, increase in fishing technologies, including mechanisation of boats, but most fishing activity remains artisanal for subsistence. There is limited commercial fishing.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersYesYes, increase in fishing technologies, inlcuding mechanisation of boats, but most fishing activity remains artisanal for subsistence. There is limited commerical fishing.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers Population fairly low, but outside fishers exploiting the MPA - including blast fishing is an issue
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoAustralias quota of SBT is well regulated - Australia’s quota bottomed out at 4,015 tonnes pa in the 2 years ending 2010/11, then increased to 4,528 tonnes in 2011/12, and 4,698 tonnes in 2012/13. Historically SBT has been over-fished by mnay nations
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNooutside fishers are an issue
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersNo
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNo
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoAustralias quota of SBT is well regulated - Australia’s quota bottomed out at 4,015 tonnes pa in the 2 years ending 2010/11, then increased to 4,528 tonnes in 2011/12, and 4,698 tonnes in 2012/13. Historically SBT has been over-fished by mnay nations
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoThe level of fishing capacity is appropriate for the fishery.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNo
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersYesSome argue there are too many recreational fishers. Technologies are not huge but are still significant for a measure activity for some fishers
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNo
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNoNot anymore, since no direct harvesting allowed.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersYesoutside fishers are an issue - there have been conflicts with bagan fishers (Erdmann pers comm.)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoAustralias quota of SBT is well regulated - Australia’s quota bottomed out at 4,015 tonnes pa in the 2 years ending 2010/11, then increased to 4,528 tonnes in 2011/12, and 4,698 tonnes in 2012/13. Historically SBT has been over-fished by many nations
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ENo
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FNo
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNooutside fishers are an issue - there have been conflicts with bagan fishers (Erdmann pers comm.) but this does not directly relate to corals
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GNo
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BNo
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersNoNo evidence of overfishing
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenNoCap is only sometimes hit. Thought "fishery naturally manages itself". Cap has not been reached during this snapshot.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ANo
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersNoEffort is limited according to in-season estimates of spawning activity
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNo