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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeInterval
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionFor this variable either enter the number of actors (e.g. 30), or if the number of actors is very large and essentially uncountable, enter “Many.”
Select Options
UnitGroup members
RoleCommonsUser
Importance"The size of groups has been a major variable in the collective action literature since Olson (1965), who argued that increased group size would decrease the likelihood of collective action mainly because of a free-rider problem: (1) individual contributions would not have a perceived impact, and (2) individuals could not be punished for not contributing. As group size decreases, it is plausible to think that interactions between users increase, which consequently increases the importance of reputation in the group and facilitates monitoring (Poteete and Ostrom 2004b). Empirical studies are far from unanimous but strongly suggest that group size does influence the likelihood of collective action -in particular the level of trust and of convergence of interests (Agrawal and Yadama 1997; Vedeld 2000; Agrawal and Goyal 2001; Poteete and Ostrom 2004; Varughese, 2000; Varughese and Ostrom 2001). However there is no such consensus about the particular effect which these variables have and how does context (i.e. different combinations with other variables) mold the effect of these variables.Varughese (2000), looking at a sample of 18 villages in the Middle Hills in Nepal, found that population size did not seem to have a significant impact on collective action; while Agrawal and Goyal (2001) found a curvilinear relationship (first directly proportional, then inversely proportional) with collective action). Meanwhile, Vedeld (2000), comparing two villages in the Inland Niger Delta, found that although the larger village had more problems in coordinating CPR management, other factors and relationships, especially those related to leadership were more important in explaining the differences between the two villages. In reviews of the literature, Agrawal (2001) and Poteete and Ostrom (2004b) sentenced that the evidence was inconclusive, and that the effect was likely to be mediated by other variables, including the institutional structure itself. In general, however, it is hypothesized that groups are more likely to resolve a collective action problem when they are small. Some social movements scholars have made the opposite argument. For instance, Oliver and Marwell (1988) argued long ago that if the costs of acting vary little between different group sizes, then collective action becomes more likely with increasing group size, because larger groups have more resources and are more likely to have a critical mass of consistent contributors (see also Gamson 1990)."
Definition

Size of a given actor group, in terms of numbers of members involved. Usually it is thought of as the number of individual people (e.g. for a community), but it could also refer to number of communities (e.g. for a federation or association of communities), associations (e.g. for a national network of organizations), municipalities, or countries, among others.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)Small
Group size and collective actionSmall

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia Group members?
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers Group membersMany
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneurs{nil=>nil} Group members?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesMany Group membersThere were a large number of people living in forested areas in Indonesia, (would be good to have some specific numbers here)
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communitiesmany Group members? would be nice to get an estimate of the number of forest dependent people in Indonesia.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia Group membersunknown
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational Users Group membersMany
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia Group membersI have no information about this?
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H290 Group membersThere are 290 individuals in the village. Note that village-level population is used as this is a village LMMA.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMany Group members
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) Group members
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms~10 Group membersThe chemical sector includes 6 major firms. Also, in the 1970s, only two thermal zinc smelters located on the river were the source of around 50% of all aqueous emissions
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMany Group membersNo recreational fishing licenses are necessary, and hence there is no count of recreational fishers. Many of the ~800,000 residents of North Queensland would consider themselves recreational fishers.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers10 Group membersSectors: http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/commercial-fisheries/queenslands-commercial-fisheries
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers700000 Group membersNo recreational fishing licenses are necessary, and hence there is no count of recreational fishers. Many of the ~800,000 residents of North Queensland would consider themselves recreational fishers. Guestimate of 700000 rec fishers
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D2327 Group membersThere are 2327 individuals in the district and 88 in the village.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers10 Group membershttp://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/commercial-fisheries/queenslands-commercial-fisheries
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers Group members
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMany Group membersA number of industrial producers, although they are dominated by large scale producers such as AtoChem and DuPont
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers2 Group members2 companies own the right to harvest toothfish resources from the Macquarie Island fishery.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen825 Group membersNumber has varied greatly over the years from a peak of approx. 1200 in 2000 to 450 in 2011 - here coded average number over time period being looked at (825). Although there are ~1000 registered fishermen, the majority of these are not active - Galapagos Report 2011-2012 (Galapagos Conservancy) - incentive to keep fishing permit as promised it would be converted to tourism permit
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers7000 Group membersapprox 7000 Bajau across six settlements across the islands
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers7000 Group membersapprox 7000 Bajau across six settlements across the islands
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers7000 Group membersapprox 7000 Bajau across six settlements across the islands in WNP
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector Group membersMANY - Chamber of Tourism - represents all tourism operators. Tourism accounts for 78% of employment on the islands (compared to 5% employment in fishing sector), assume number is high (Jones 2013)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers Group membersMany
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers49000 Group members49,000 people within the Raja Ampat Regency (2014 census)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism Group members15,000 international visitors annually and 5,000 local visitors (informal numbers: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/08/10/raja-ampat-s-blossoming-tourism.html)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers49000 Group members49,000 people within the Raja Ampat Regency (2014 census) - unsure of number of fishers, but majority og households identify as fishers
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers49000 Group members49,000 people within the Raja Ampat Regency (2014 census) - not sure on exact number of fishers, but almost all households identify as fishers
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishers3100 Group membersAccording to Elizabeth Taylor there are approximately 3100 fishers in this region (on San Andres 2500; on Providence 600).
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers2 Group members2 companies operate within the Macquarie Island Toothfish fishery.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Fishermen400 Group membersAbout 100 to 400, yet fairly unknown (Ecotrust, 2012).
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Group members
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers700000 Group members700000 recreational fishers in Queensland
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism14 Group membersThere are 14 AECO members, which operate about 20 vessels around Svalbard (Evenset and Christensen 2011 ).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers30 Group membersIn the 2011/12 State of the Parks Report, there were 30 commercial fishing permits listed under the management plan.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishers3100 Group membersAccording to Elizabeth Taylor there are approximately 3100 fishers in this region (on San Andres 2500; on Providence 600).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers1500 Group membersThere are about 1500 licensed commercial fishing boats (Queensland Government [online]).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers2 Group membersTwo fishing companies (with four vessels in the fishery): Austral fisheries Pty Ltd and Australian Longline Pty Ltd.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism14 Group membersThere are 14 AECO members, which operate about 20 vessels around Svalbard (Evenset and Christensen 2011).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers30 Group membersIn the 2011 - 12 State of the Parks Report, there were 30 commercial fishing permits listed under the management plan.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F1257 Group membersThere are 1257 individuals in the district; of which 368 come from the surveyed communities.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E227 Group membersThere are 227 living in the district that hold rights to harvest within the LMMA and PHC.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers14000 Group membersNumber of people in the park. from two districts: Nabire Regency Papua Province, and Wondama Bay, West Papua Province Population: Wondama (77.69%) Nabire (22.31%)
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G284 Group membersThere are 284 individuals in this community. Note that village rather than district values are used as this is village LMMA.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers Group members• 14,000 people live in 72 villages within the park (Nabire district: 7 villages and 2500 people, Wondama district: 21 villages and 15,000 people) • Wondama Bay (West Papua Province) and District Nabire (Papua Province). Number of people in the park. from two districts: Nabire Regency Papua Province, and Wondama Bay, West Papua Province Population: Wondama (77.69%) Nabire (22.31%)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers10 Group members
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B943 Group membersThere are 943 individuals in the district; of whom 68 are found in community B and eligible to harvest fish resources within the PHC.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermen400 Group membersMax: ~400 76 permits, ~6 people per vessel
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers840 Group membersTrawls have 40-80 crew. 12-20 vessels.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers30 Group membersIn the 2011/12 State of the Parks Report, there were 30 commercial fishing permits listed under the management plan.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A943 Group membersThere are approximately 943 individuals in the district that are eligible to fish within the LMMA. The community itself contains 110 individuals.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid Trawlers520 Group membersIn 1988–1990, up to 46 trawlers belonging to ten countries (mainly Spanish, 50–70%) were licensed to fish for Patagonian squid. Since 2000, the fleet has consisted of 16 factory trawlers (almost exclusively Falkland flagged vessels).” (Arkhipkin et al. 2015a). Most trawlers have a crew of 25-40 people, so there are about 520 fishermen in the system (Sancho 2009). There are 7 Joint Venture Companies. And the Spanish Masters are a few to each ship.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers2 Group membersTwo fishing companies (with four vessels total) operate in the HIMI toothfish fishery: Austral Fisheries Pty Ltd. & Australian Longline Pty. Ltd.