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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindComponent
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionIs there general proportionality between the amount of costs group members incur and the amount of benefits received?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceCPR theory argues that individuals are more likely to continually invest in costly activities needed for cooperation, including monitoring and rule-making when they perceive themselves to derive sufficient and equivalent benefits from their actions (Cox et al. 2010).
Definition

Actors incur costs when they act collectively. These can be related to both time and money. They also gain benefits from this. Proportionality refers to a judgement that costs and benefits are balanced in a way that is expected and considered legitimate by members of the group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
CBNRM design principlesYes
Crowding out from external supportNo
Proportionality and collective-actionYes

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
Indonesian "Adat" Communities Missing in case
Ozone SecretariatNoHigh-income countries (designated as Article 5 countries) and lower-income countries have common but differentiated responsibilities (http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/montreal_protocol.php).
Indonesian District Governments missing in case
"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012) Missing in case
"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)NoWhile certain members of the government (particularly family members and military and business leaders with close ties to Suharto) received most of the benefits of the system, in the form of privileged access to forest concessions - they incurred few costs. Costs were largely borne by those dependent on forests for their subsistence, or by the natural systems themselves.
Large Extractive Industries in IndonesiaNo? Not sure how to code this
Indonesian Local entrepreneurs ?
Ozone Nation States Yes
Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersYes
ICCAT Eastern MembersYesThere is some proportionality between contributions to ICCAT and the amount of benefits, however, not included in these costs are the monitoring costs that are performed at the National Level. In any case 4 groups are identified, Parties identified as developed market economies pay the most, while payments by non-developed economies depend upon combinations of their GNP and catches. The poorest countries with catches below 5000t pay 0.25% of the budget each, while countries that exceed GNP of 2,000 or harvest more than 5000t pay 3,00% each.
ICPR nations (1976-1986)YesThe costs of participating in the ICPR were relatively low; countries did not engage in pollution abatement costs of pollution as part of the ICPR governance system (although they expectedly did it as part of their own and European national regulations.
Civil society organizations in Indonesia Missing in case
Wetfish Fishermen 
ICCAT Contracting Parties YesThere is some proportionality between contributions to ICCAT and the amount of benefits, however, not included in these costs are the monitoring costs that are performed at the National Level. In any case 4 groups are identified, Parties identified as developed market economies pay the most, while payments by non-developed economies depend upon combinations of their GNP and catches. The poorest countries with catches below 5000t pay 0.25% of the budget each, while countries that exceed GNP of 2,000 or harvest more than 5000t pay 3,00% each.
ICCAT Western MembersYesThere is some proportionality between contributions to ICCAT and the amount of benefits, however, not included in these costs are the monitoring costs that are performed at the National Level. In any case 4 groups are identified, Parties identified as developed market economies pay the most, while payments by non-developed economies depend upon combinations of their GNP and catches. The poorest countries with catches below 5000t pay 0.25% of the budget each, while countries that exceed GNP of 2,000 or harvest more than 5000t pay 3,00% each.
GBR fisheries managersNot Applicable
ICPR nations (1986-2000)YesThe proportionality of costs and benefits was better taken care than in the past (see "ICPR Nations (1987-1986)"
Rhine chemical firmsYesThe industry enjoyed good economic juncture; also there were prospects to export the new developed technologies to other countries.
Rhine agricultural sectorNoThere is no apparent benefit for farmers to abate pollution; rather costs
GBR government co-managersNot Applicable
GBR recreational fishersYesThere is low or no cost to being a recreational fisher. All that is required to be one is gear (fishing rod etc), maybe a boat. There is a fee to become a member of a recreational fishing association (e.g., Australian National Sportfishing Association), but membership is not required to fish recreationally. No recreational fishing license is needed.
Wakatobi managersNot Applicable
National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAANot Applicable
Raja Ampat TourismYesReceive more benefits than costs - profitably industry.
Raja Ampat ManagersNot Applicable
Australian Toothfish FishersYes
NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Not Applicable
Riparian Nations (1976-1986) 
Wakatobi Bajau fishersNoReceive more benefits than costs - fishing is central to their culture and society. There are limited no take areas in WNP and the Bajau are high mobile. Bajau also prefer not to be involved as much in meetings/monitoring and official government activities.
Svalbard TourismYesAs a growing industry, the number of tourists visiting Svalbard increased throughout the time period coded (2004-2012) (Sysselmannen på Svalbard 2012 ). As the second largest industry in Svalbard, in 2007 tourism directly employed 211 people and contributed NOK 317 million (about $41 million US) to the economy (Report No.22 2008-2009).
Australian Antarctic DivisionNot Applicable
GMR managersNot Applicable
NWHI ResearchersNot Applicable
CORALINANoCORALINA receives money (is paid) to manage human activities
Raja Ampat Artisanal FishersNoReceive more benefits than costs - fishing is central to their culture and society.
Macquarie Island ManagersNot Applicable
Charles Darwin FoundationNot Applicable
Galapagos Tourism SectorYesGalapagos is seen as an ecotourism destination. Tourism accounts for 78% of all employment in the Galapagos, quite profitable.
Seaflower artisanal fishersNoIt seems that artisanal fishers put a lot of their time and effort in the MPA creation management process but it does not seem their economic situation improved nor that MPA is functioning properly.
GBR commercial fishersNoCommercial fisheries feel highly regulated and invest a lot in monitoring. They feel that the governance system does not value the fishing industry as much as it does other industries like tourism. Therefore, commercial fishing is managed more closely than other sectors. Fish catches overall have declined since establishment of the GBRMP.
California Academic ResearchersYesMost research is not being funded by individual group members but by grants for the directed research. While many research objectives are to improve the ecosystem health of the sanctuaries, some do not result in any direct application. Overall most research is used to benefit one or more aspects of the Sanctuary and benefit the researcher's career.
California Groundfish FishermenNoFor many species, the quota allocations have decreased substantially, making the high costs of owning and maintaining a boat and a limited entry license high cost, with not as much benefit as once occurred. Additionally, the high cost of paying for an on-board monitor is many times higher than the benefit they receive from their catch.
California Sanctuary Recreational UsersYesTourism is a highly lucrative industry in this area, and much of it is due to recreation within the Sanctuary. Most whale watching boats were old fishermen boats converted for tourism, and have made much more profit in the tourism industry than they did fishing. Kayaking and paddle boarding is generally low cost. Scuba diving is a popular activity with many benefits, and shore diving is a lower cost but common strategy. An estimated 4,500 to 5,000 passengers go on Farallon Islands trips annually. Average adult ticket prices around San Francisco are $60 for a half‐day trip while full‐day trips to the Farallon Islands can cost between $95 and $125. Shorter harbour trips of around 2 hours are also run and cost $30 but only offer opportunistic sightings of dolphins and porpoises. Average adult ticket prices in the Monterey Bay sanctuary for 2 to 3 hour trips are $46. Average adult ticket prices for longer trips are $86 (O'Connor et al. 2009). Travel and tourism totaled $5.9 billion in travel-spending revenue in 2003 for the five counties adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine sanctuary. Much of this tourism is focused on the coast and ocean protected by the sanctuary (NMS, 2014).
Australian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Svalbard Resource Managers As a group of government organizations, this group does not function as a profit driven business. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 states that any tax levied in Svalbard must be spent Svalbard, and that taxes/fees should not exceed the costs of administration. Since 2007, there has been an Environmental Protection Fund which provides money for environmental projects. Each tourist visiting Svalbard pays a fee (NOK 150, about $20US) to the environmental protection fund (Report No.22 2008-2009 ).
Svalbard Shrimp Fishers The overall value of the Norwegian shrimp fishery (not just Svalbard area) is about 500 million NOK per year ($65 million US) (Statistics Norway [Online ]). Fishing statistics for indicate that for groundfishing as a whole (including shrimp) that revenues have exceeded costs, making it profitable (Fiskeridirektoratet 2015 ).
Galapagos Charles Darwin FoundationNot Applicable
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersYesYes - if group members (commercial fishers) incur greater costs (e.g. more licenses, better boats and technology) they have access to catch more fish and incur greater benefits. Even though the production volume for the wild-catch sector decreased by 4% the gross value of Australian commercial fisheries production increased by 3% and the gross value of aquaculture production increased from $100 million to $1.1 billion (which includes southern bluefin tuna wild-catch input to the South Australian tuna farming sector) (Australian fisheries statistics 2012).
California State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesNot Applicable
Cenderwasih fishers 
Galapagos Artisan FishermenYesFishermen are part of cooperatives and during the peak fishery were involved in many meetings and protests, this would have involved considerable time but they got the outcomes they wanted so coded as yes. Currently the fishery is closed, but there was a commitment to convert fishing permits into tourism permits.
Cenderwasih managersNot Applicable
New Zealand Fishery ManagersNoBenefits in experience and pay, little costs.
New Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesCosts are very high so always try to minimize, but make profits. Profits not guaranteed. Trawlers and quotas are very expensive, but high value fishery.
Patagonian Squid TrawlersYesCosts include taxes, licenses, fuel, vessel maintenance. Profits exceed costs. Often countries (e.g. Spain) subsidize costs, helping this. Very expensive to be involved in fishery, but high economic outputs.
Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersNoNo/little costs for managers, but many professional benefits. Small team, often early career scientists and managers who leave after 2, 3, 4 years to continue career paths.
California market squid fishermenYesMake profit most of the time, but not always. Depends on availability. High costs for licenses, dockage, and vessel maintenance. But highest value fishery they catch.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersNoMore benefits (pay and career) than costs.