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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeKnowledge and uncertainty (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat is the level of traditional or local knowledge this actor group has regarding the condition of this environmental commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
Role
ImportanceKnowledge of resource conditions is widely believed to be a requirement for sustainable management - i.e. if you don't know how the resources are doing, you cannot change management practices in response to changing resource conditions. Many argue that traditional knowledge or local knowledge provides a vital source of information for making resource management decisions (although others argue for the primacy of traditional knowledge).
Definition

Local and traditional knowledge capture a diversity of forms of knowledge which are not based on scientific processes. Traditional knowledge refers to knowledge passed down through generations, generally among people living in a region for a long time - including, but not limited to indigenous people. Local knowledge refers to knowledge that people who live or work in an area have of the area or resource which may not be based on generations of residing in the area, but may be based on long observations by individuals. Although these people may have engaged in some kind of systematic inquiry to obtain this knowledge, it would generally not be published in formal sources, and the people conducting the inquiry would not have received systematic training in means of making systematic inquiry.

High: the condition of the resource is understood with a high degree of confidence by this actor group based on traditional or local knowledge.

Low: This actor group has little or no traditional or local knowledge about the condition of the resource.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Social memory and general resilienceMedium or High
Conditions for general resilienceMedium or High
Uncertainty and depletion of natural resourcesLow
Decentralization and elite captureLow
Parametric managementHigh
Failure of centralized controlLow

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)Many members of this group were members of indigenous communities with centuries of accumulation of local/traditional knowledge about the commons.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This actor group did not use traditional knowledge
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursLow (1)this group generally does not have scientific knowledge.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)Low (1)this group does not have local/traditional knowledge.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)Low (1)This group does not have traditional or local knowledge
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINANot Applicable
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in IndonesiaLow (1)This group does not possess local/traditional knowledge.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian District GovernmentsLow (1)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties  N/A
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties  
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesHigh (3)This group has a high level of traditional ecological knowledge.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaLow (1)This group also does not possess very much local knowledge
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern Members 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Western Members 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Eastern Members 
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Not Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone SecretariatNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)long tradition of local management of natural resources (sasi).
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAALow (1)The Sanctuary incorporates stakeholder input into its activities, but the level of local knowledge is still limited here.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersLow (1)Managers have scientific rather than local knowledge
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)This is an average across the population of recreational fishers. Frequent fishers would have high local knowledge, fishers travelling from other states or infrequent fishers would have low local knowledge of reefs where they fish.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersLow (1)Managers have scientific rather than local knowledge
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Contracting Parties  
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHigh (3)
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Nation States Not Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)most fishers have immigrated from mainland Ecuador so they have no cultural roots in the Galapagos, no “island” culture (Shepherd et al., 2004)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Managers are not native to Galapagos (mainland Ecuador) - most people have moved to the islands in last few decades. Lack of island identity
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Some traditional knowledge as the local government are from the Wakatobi
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Local government are from the Wakatobi
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)Many have immigrated from mainland Ecuador so they have no cultural roots in the Galapagos, no “island” culture (Shepherd et al., 2004)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)State of Hawai'i as part of co-trusteeship and also representative of native Hawaiians on the board, so they have access to local knowledge and appear to base decisions on this.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Not Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)Highly detailed awareness of spatiotemporal variability in many physical and biological aspects of the marine environment (see Clifton and Majors 2012)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)Highly detailed awareness of spatiotemporal variability in many physical and biological aspects of the marine environment (see Clifton and Majors 2012)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)State of Hawai'i as part of co-trusteeship and also representative of native Hawaiians on the board, so they have access to local knowledge and appear to base decisions on this.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorLow (1)Lack of island identity as most residents are new to the area (moved from mainland Ecuador) so assume low traditional knowledge with respect to local environment
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersHigh (3)Highly detailed awareness of spatiotemporal variability in many physical and biological aspects of the marine environment (see Clifton and Majors 2012)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersLow (1)most fishers have immigrated from mainland Ecuador so they have no cultural roots in the Galapagos, no “island” culture (Shepherd et al., 2004)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)While traditional knowledge is not ignored, it is often not incorporated into research studies.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)Local knowledge accrued through working in the region, and dive guides knowledge has been used to assess oerceptions of shark abundance/populations (PhD study by Pen˜aherrera). But not coded as high as no long tradtition/heritage in the GMR due to recent immigration
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)Commercial fishers would have local knowledge on the location of calving whales in coastal waters and the timing of when the whales migrated to inland coastal areas to calve (fishing areas)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Local communities coded as part of the management actor - assume they share their knowledge
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismMedium (2)Likely some variation between liveabords and local operators
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship High (3)State of Hawai'i as part of co-trusteeship and also representative of native Hawaiians on the board, so they have access to local knowledge and appear to base decisions on this.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Local communities included as management actor (co-management) and so assume they share their local knowledge with the other management actors
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersHigh (3)Local communities with high traditional knowledge included as management actor so assuming they share knowledge high traditional knowledge among the management actor group
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)~85% Ecuadorian staff, but Galapagos does not have a long human history and lacks an 'island identity'
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersLow (1)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceCORALINANot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Low (1)Managers have scientific rather than local knowledge
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Local community members who use the Sanctuary for recreational purposes bring their own knowledges, but many outside tourists do not include traditional knowledge in their experience. Companies know hot spots for observing whales.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)This is an average across the population of recreational fishers. Frequent fishers would have high local knowledge, fishers travelling from other states or infrequent fishers would have low local knowledge.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Local knowledge can be incorporated through citizen-reporting of whale sightings, but otherwise there is limited traditional knowledge incorporated into Sanctuary-humpback relations. Though traditional knowledge about this same stock is available from First Nations in Canada and populations in Costa Rica.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceFalkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries ManagersLow (1)Uses information from industry to manage fishery. Little traditional knowledge exists.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)Based on the description of the participatory process and their historic use artisanal fishers seem to know about the habitat, spatial distribution of this resource.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersLow (1)Managers are not Papuan
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Antarctic DivisionNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersHigh (3)SBT has been intensively fished since the early 1950s. The actor group would have local knowledge on the locations where to catch SBT (movement and congregation).
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih managersLow (1)Managers are not Papuan
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersMissingUncertain
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersMissingUncertain
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersHigh (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)CDF includes local staff, but there is no long history of people living on Galapagos 'lack of island culture'
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersHigh (3)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks Low (1)The Director has scientific rather than local knowledge
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationLow (1)CDF includes local staff, but there is no long history of people living on Galapagos 'lack of island culture'
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI ResearchersLow (1)Some anthro research, but probably on average fairly low
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAALow (1)Local knowledge can be incorporated through citizen-reporting of whale sightings, but otherwise there is limited traditional knowledge incorporated into Sanctuary-humpback relations. Though traditional knowledge about this same stock is available from First Nations in Canada and populations in Costa Rica.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenMedium (2)Fishermen know traditional fishing grounds and weather patterns. However, the generational trend is not very long in this area (going back 100 years mostly).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesMedium (2)Need to research this more, but with the high level of stakeholder input, local knowledge is incorporated into the regulation process. To what level, further investigation is needed.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersMedium (2)Some traditional knowledge as the local government are from the Wakatobi
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR fisheries managersLow (1)
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Fishery ManagersLow (1)Not a lot of traditional knowledge to access. The New Zealand domestic fishery is less than 400 tonnes, as squid is not a traditional food in New Zealand, and there has been little interest in it (Gibson, 1995). Maori did not access squid, especially deep water.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid ManagersLow (1)While managers converse with fishermen to know historical fishing grounds and behavior, not a lot of traditional knowledge to access.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersLow (1)Not a traditional fishery.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)Been same families for a little over 100 years, a lot of word of mouth instruction, primarily in fishing techniques and hot spots.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Commercial fishers likely have some knoweldge of Australian sea lions, but their direct interactions are limited
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)Based on the description of the participatory process and their historic interaction with coral reefs artisanal fishers seem to know about its spatial distribution.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersLow (1)Fishermen are mostly foreign and new to the system (fishery began in 1982). But Spanish Masters have been coming back for many years so have their own set of accumulated knowledge.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable