|Variable Component Type||Environmental Common|
|Theme||Resource renewability (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||How renewable is this commons?|
|Select Options||0 Not renewable, 1 Renewable|
|Importance||Renewability affects the incentives of users to conserve the commons. Resources with low regeneration rates are more challenging to manage that those resources that regenerate very fast.|
Renewable resources are resources that can be replaced or replenished within 100 years.
Dietz, Thomas, Nives Dolsak, Elinor Ostrom, and Paul Stern. 2002 “The Drama of the Commons.” In The Drama of the Commons, 3–36. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber||Renewable (1)||Sea cucumbers are renewable, however exhibit very low reproductive and recruitment capacity. (Hearn et al., 2005)|
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Renewable (1)|
|Forests in Indonesia||Renewable (1)||Forests in this environment grow back fairly rapidly (although in some extreme circumstances of forest clearing, they may not easily grow back).|
|Ozone||Renewable (1)||Ozone is a renewable abiotic compound, but this occurs via slow regenerative processes|
|Ozone Depleting Substances||Renewable (1)||These are man-made and can be created at any time.|
|Rhine Point source pollutants||Renewable (1)||The pollutants are natural metals, which are potentially renewable|
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Renewable (1)|
|Rhine Non-point source pollutants||Renewable (1)||The pollutants are natural chemical elements, which are potentially renewable|
|GBR coral cover||Renewable (1)||But takes decades to renew because coral reefs are slow-growing|
|GBR target fish|
|GBR target fish||Renewable (1)||Renewable within a years (as opposed to months or decades).|
|NWHI Lobster Fishery||Renewable (1)|
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Renewable (1)|
|Wakatobi coral cover||Renewable (1)||But takes decades to renew because coral reefs are slow-growing|
|Light Mantled Albatross||Renewable (1)|
|Galapagos Green Turtle||Renewable (1)||Renewable, however slow to mature and reproduce, with high infant mortality.|
|NWHI Trophic Density||Renewable (1)||Some high trophic species are slow to reproduce|
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||Renewable (1)||Reflective of environmental conditions. Reproduces quickly.|
|Wakatobi Green Turtle||Renewable (1)||But slow to reproduce - low regeneration rates|
|NWHI Green Turtle||Renewable (1)||But slow to reproduce - low regeneration rates|
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish||Renewable (1)||However, some can be very slow growing taking years to mature and reproduce|
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover||Renewable (1)||But takes decades to renew because coral reefs are slow-growing|
|Galapagos Sharks||Renewable (1)||But many species slow to reproduce|
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle||Renewable (1)||Renewable, although low survival rates and slow maturing|
|California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||Renewable (1)||Most species are fast-growing.|
|Community D Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Community A Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Community C Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Community B Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|California Humpback Whale||Renewable (1)||Renewable but these species are slow to reproduce and have low regeneration rates.|
|California Groundfish Habitat||Renewable (1)||This is moderately renewable. Biotic habitat (kelp) is more so renewable than rocks. Most are long living species but are quite slow growing (especially many rockfish species) (McCain et al. 2005). Overexploitation of California rockfish stocks have led to a reduction in age at maturity, a decrease in fecundity, and a change in gonadal index (Adams 1980; Gunderson et al. 1980). The kelp forests and sea grass areas are renewable, while the rocky shores are somewhat renewable.|
|Svalbard Polar Bear||Renewable (1)|
|Seaflower coral reefs||Renewable (1)||Spawn yearly.|
|Community G Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Community F Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Community E Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Community H Fish Resources||Renewable (1)|
|Svalbard Shrimp||Renewable (1)|
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||Renewable (1)||Reproduces quickly.|
|Svalbard Beluga||Renewable (1)|
|King Penguin||Renewable (1)|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||Renewable (1)||Renewable but southern right whales are slow to reproduce and have low regeneration rates.|
|Cenderwasih target fish||Renewable (1)||However, some can be very slow growing taking years to mature and reproduce|
|Seaflower groupers||Renewable (1)||Reproduce yearly.|
|Cenderwasih coral cover||Renewable (1)||But takes decades to renew because coral reefs are slow-growing|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||Renewable (1)||Renewable but vulnerable to exploitation and potentially slow to recover from fishing.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Benthos||Renewable (1)||Poriferans, ascidians and bryozoans dominated the biomass of benthic species found in the GABMP and these marine invertebrates are renewable.|
|GBR Green Turtle||Renewable (1)|
|Wakatobi fish spawning||Renewable (1)||Lutjanus bohar and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus both have minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years, Plectropomus areolatus is much less productive with a minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years|
|Cenderwasih green turtle||Renewable (1)||But slow to reproduce - low regeneration rates|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Renewable (1)|
|Patagonian Toothfish||Renewable (1)||Toothfish are a renewable resource, but are still subject to overexploitation because of their life history characteristics (e.g., slow growth, long-lived, later to mature).|
|Svalbard Kittiwake||Renewable (1)||Generation length: 12.9 years (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694497/0)|
|Lombok aquaculture irrigation canals||Renewable (1)|
|New Zealand Sea Lion|
|Coral reefs, coast and small-island on and surrounding Gili Trawangan, Indonesia||Renewable (1)|
|Gulf of Nicoya fisheries||Renewable (1)|
|Mangrove forest in Bragança, Brazil||Renewable (1)|
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||Renewable (1)||Reflective of environmental conditions. Reproduces quickly.|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.