|Variable Component Type||Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||If there are markets for goods produced by or associated with this resource, what is the largest scale at which they operate?|
|Select Options||local, sub-national, national, international, global, other|
|Importance||The scale at which markets occur likely influences supply and demand, and may affect the ability to regulate the trade of this commons.|
"“Markets represent a subset of the many institutional arrangements that have developed over time for transferring rights. The fundamental characteristic of this subset is that it specializes in the exchange of property rights through mechanisms that require the mutual consent of parties involved (markets don’t give “orders”) and that coordinate the decentralized decisions made by agents using the information provided through the price system” (Menard, 2005). Scale refers to the spatial extent at which the market operates. Local: small-scale, countries municipalities Subnational: substantial portion of a nation; e.g., state, province National: One nation International: 2+ nations Global: close to all nations."
|Marginalization and degradation||Large in scale|
|Roving banditry||Large in scale (e.g. international)|
|Market-driven resource decline||Large in scale (e.g. international)|
|Case||Interaction Type||Component||Value Used||Explanation|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||international||Forest products were traded internationally.|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||international||Indonesia is a leading global exporter of wood and forest products.|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||international|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve||Biophysical||Galapagos Sea Cucumber|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||international|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||Not applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||global||Tourists come from all over the world to see the GBR|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||global||Global markets for fish|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sea Cucumber||international||primarily in Asia|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi coral cover||local||Some, but very localised markets for coral mining - run primarily by women (Cullen 2010). However, this activity is considered to be insignificant, given the availability and access to cheaper land rock from the islands in the park, the limited evidence for coral mining in the park (Clifton 2013).|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi fish spawning||sub-national||Most of the resources extracted are for local subsistence. Some also traded in district-level markets with the exception of the small live reef fish trade.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||Not Applicable|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Not Applicable|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Lobster Fishery||Not Applicable|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Green Turtle||global||Cultural services operating at a global scale, as people from around the world visit the Galapagos for nature tourism|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||international||Toothfish resources are sold on global markets, dominated by US and Japan.|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Not Applicable|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Humpback Whale||local||Tourism is a local market.|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Trophic Density||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sharks||Not Applicable|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Coral Cover||global||International tourism market|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Reef Fish||international||predominantly local subsistence, but some commercial fishing|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Polar Bear||Not Applicable|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||international||SBT are sold internationally|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Shrimp||global|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||Not Applicable|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||Not Applicable|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Groundfish Habitat||global||Fish are exported to many countries, including: China, Canada, Chile, Australia, Spain, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Bermuda, Norway, Curaco, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Aruba, France, Romania, Haiti, Cameroon, Croatia, Georgia, Ghana, Lebanon, Egypt, South Africa, Ukraine, Lituania, Russia, Grenada, Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom, Brazil, etc.|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih coral cover||Not Applicable|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower coral reefs||Not Applicable|
|Falkland Islands squid||Governance||Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||international||International market: European, Asian, African|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||King Penguin||Not Applicable|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Kittiwake||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih target fish||international||predominantly local subsistence. Commercial fishing predominantly condicyed by outsiders.|
|New Zealand squid||Governance||Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||international||Squid exported to multiple nations.|
|California squid||Governance||California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||international||Multiple countries (106 total) but primarily ~6 countries|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||international||Toothfish from HIMI are sold on an international market, primarily to USA, China and Japan (AFMA 2014).|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower groupers||local||Most of the fish is sold within the archipelago.|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.