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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionIf there are markets for goods produced by or associated with this resource, what is the largest scale at which they operate?
Select Optionslocal, sub-national, national, international, global, other
Unit
Role
ImportanceThe scale at which markets occur likely influences supply and demand, and may affect the ability to regulate the trade of this commons.
Definition

"“Markets represent a subset of the many institutional arrangements that have developed over time for transferring rights. The fundamental characteristic of this subset is that it specializes in the exchange of property rights through mechanisms that require the mutual consent of parties involved (markets don’t give “orders”) and that coordinate the decentralized decisions made by agents using the information provided through the price system” (Menard, 2005). Scale refers to the spatial extent at which the market operates. Local: small-scale, countries municipalities Subnational: substantial portion of a nation; e.g., state, province National: One nation International: 2+ nations Global: close to all nations."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Marginalization and degradationLarge in scale
Roving banditryLarge in scale (e.g. international)
Market-driven resource declineLarge in scale (e.g. international)

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiainternationalForest products were traded internationally.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiainternationalIndonesia is a leading global exporter of wood and forest products.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna international
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tunainternational
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral cover Not applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish 
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverglobalTourists come from all over the world to see the GBR
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishglobalGlobal markets for fish
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea Cucumberinternationalprimarily in Asia
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverlocalSome, but very localised markets for coral mining - run primarily by women (Cullen 2010). However, this activity is considered to be insignificant, given the availability and access to cheaper land rock from the islands in the park, the limited evidence for coral mining in the park (Clifton 2013).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningsub-nationalMost of the resources extracted are for local subsistence. Some also traded in district-level markets with the exception of the small live reef fish trade.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleglobalCultural services operating at a global scale, as people from around the world visit the Galapagos for nature tourism
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish internationalToothfish resources are sold on global markets, dominated by US and Japan.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhalelocalTourism is a local market.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverglobalInternational tourism market
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish internationalpredominantly local subsistence, but some commercial fishing
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunainternationalSBT are sold internationally
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimpglobal
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatglobalFish are exported to many countries, including: China, Canada, Chile, Australia, Spain, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Bermuda, Norway, Curaco, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Aruba, France, Romania, Haiti, Cameroon, Croatia, Georgia, Ghana, Lebanon, Egypt, South Africa, Ukraine, Lituania, Russia, Grenada, Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom, Brazil, etc.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)internationalInternational market: European, Asian, African
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishinternationalpredominantly local subsistence. Commercial fishing predominantly condicyed by outsiders.
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)internationalSquid exported to multiple nations.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)internationalMultiple countries (106 total) but primarily ~6 countries
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish internationalToothfish from HIMI are sold on an international market, primarily to USA, China and Japan (AFMA 2014).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower grouperslocalMost of the fish is sold within the archipelago.