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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeEnvironmental Common
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionIf there are markets [for ecosystem goods and services, i.e. cultural, regulation and/or provisioning services, associated with this resource], what is the largest scale at which they operate?
Select Optionslocal, sub-national, national, international, global, other
Unit
Role
ImportanceThe scale at which markets occur likely influences supply and demand, and may affect the ability to regulate the trade of ES.
Definition"This refers to the scale at which the ecosystem services are traded. Local: small-scale, counties, municipalities Subnational: substantial portion of a nation; e.g., state, province National: One nation International: 2+ nations Global: close to all nations."
Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in Indonesiainternational
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in Indonesia 
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzone Depleting SubstancesNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substances 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine Point source pollutantsglobal
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverinternationalInternational tourism: people come from all over the world to visit the reef.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverglobalTourists come from all over the world to dive or snorkel the GBR
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzone Depleting SubstancesNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishinternational
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishglobalFish (provisioning service) are traded globally. Markets for tourists (cultural service) also global
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting SubstancesNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberinternationalMainly Asia, where sea cucumbers are a delicacy.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish international
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverinternationalHigh-end exclusive tourists (cultural ES) come to visit the area. Benefits are concentrated within all-inclusive resorts.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningsub-nationalMost of the resources extracted are for local subsistence. Some also traded in district-level markets with the exception of the small live reef fish trade.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleglobalHigh-end exclusive tourists (cultural ES) come to visit the area. Benefits are concentrated within all-inclusive resorts. provisioning - the majority of the local fishery is for local subsistence (Exton 2010). Evidence of turtles being exported illegally to a probably international market.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleglobalCultural services operating at a global scale, as people from around the world visit the Galapagos for nature tourism
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)BiophysicalRhine Non-point source pollutants 
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksglobalInternational market for cultural services through tourism
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic Densitysub-nationalImportant cultural area for native Hawaiians
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhalelocalCultural as in tourism benefits, local support for whale watching.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthlocalThe rocky shoreline brings in a number of tourists for the Pacific Coastal trail. Tourism is a lucrative local industry.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverglobalInternational tourism market
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleglobalTourism in the area is focussed on dive tourism - turtles are a big draw.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish internationalFishing is predominately local subsistence. There is some commercial fishing for skipjack tuna, but these boats are owned by outsiders.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatglobalLocal for cultural services e.g. SCUBA diving groundfish habitat operate locally. Global for provisional goods which are exported to many countries, including: China, Canada, Chile, Australia, Spain, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Bermuda, Norway, Curaco, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Aruba, France, Romania, Haiti, Cameroon, Croatia, Georgia, Ghana, Lebanon, Egypt, South Africa, Ukraine, Lituania, Russia, Grenada, Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom, Brazil, etc.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearinternationalTourists to Svalbard come from many different countries. Most tourists are either from Norway or other European countries, although some tourists are from other continents (Kaltenborn and Hindrum 1996).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleinternationalTourists come to view the southern right whales from the cliffs at the Head of Bight during calving season. This provides a cultural service through tourism benefits.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpglobalProvisioning: global market for shrimp
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunainternationalProvisioning - SBT are sold internationally. Australian farmed tuna is sold almost exclusively to Japanese sashimi markets but some growers are looking further abroad to other markets, such as the United States.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleinternationalThe GBR is well-recognized internationally as a great tourist destination, including turtle watching.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossinternationalTourists come to Heard Island explicitly to see wildlife, including all albatross species.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguininternationalTourists come from across the world to see King Penguins at the Heard and McDonald Islands, however due to the remote location and renowned harsh weather and at-sea conditions, tourist trips to the Heard and McDonald Islands (via large commercial vessels or small personalized yachts) are very infrequent.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish internationalToothfish from HIMI support an international market as they are largely exported to USA, China and Japan (see, e.g., AFMA 2014).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionglobalA substantial Sea Lion tourist industry has developed
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeinternationalTourists to Svalbard come from many different countries. Most tourists are either from Norway or other European countries, although some tourists are from other continents (Kaltenborn and Hindrum 1996 ).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMissingNO DATA
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverinternationalTourism - high-end liveabord - is increasing in the area. Currently 6–10 dive liveaboard vessels.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishglobalFishing is predominately local subsistence. There is some commercial fishing for skipjack tuna, but these boats are owned by outsiders. The illegal fishing, including ornamental fish trade and grouper live capture is conducted by outsiders (Biak). Erdmann pers comm.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)internationalProvisioning is many (but not close to all) countries - Spain, Taiwan, India, South Africa, USA...
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)internationalSmall Squid goes mainly to Croatia, Medium to China, Large to USA and some parts of Europe. NZ$71m was estimated to be exported to markets in China, Greece, Korea, the USA, Taiwan, Spain, and Italy during 2008. In New Zealand, squid can be purchased in supermarkets in the freezer section (Arkhipkin et al. 2015)
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)internationalProvisioning: Multiple countries (106 total) but primarily ~6 countries