|Variable Component Type||Environmental Common|
|Theme||Institutions (learn about themes)|
|Question||If there are markets [for ecosystem goods and services, i.e. cultural, regulation and/or provisioning services, associated with this resource], what is the largest scale at which they operate?|
|Select Options||local, sub-national, national, international, global, other|
|Importance||The scale at which markets occur likely influences supply and demand, and may affect the ability to regulate the trade of ES.|
|Definition||"This refers to the scale at which the ecosystem services are traded. Local: small-scale, counties, municipalities Subnational: substantial portion of a nation; e.g., state, province National: One nation International: 2+ nations Global: close to all nations."|
|Case||Interaction Type||Component||Value Used||Explanation|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia||international|
|Forests in Indonesia||Governance||Forests in Indonesia|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve||Biophysical||Galapagos Sea Cucumber|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna|
|Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)||Governance||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||Not Applicable|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone Depleting Substances||Not Applicable|
|Montreal Protocol||Governance||Ozone Depleting Substances|
|International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)||Governance||Rhine Point source pollutants||global|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||international||International tourism: people come from all over the world to visit the reef.|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||global||Tourists come from all over the world to dive or snorkel the GBR|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone||Not Applicable|
|Montreal Protocol||Biophysical||Ozone Depleting Substances||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||international|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||global||Fish (provisioning service) are traded globally. Markets for tourists (cultural service) also global|
|Montreal Protocol||Governance||Ozone Depleting Substances||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sea Cucumber||international||Mainly Asia, where sea cucumbers are a delicacy.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||international|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||Not Applicable|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||Not Applicable|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi coral cover||international||High-end exclusive tourists (cultural ES) come to visit the area. Benefits are concentrated within all-inclusive resorts.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi fish spawning||sub-national||Most of the resources extracted are for local subsistence. Some also traded in district-level markets with the exception of the small live reef fish trade.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi Green Turtle||global||High-end exclusive tourists (cultural ES) come to visit the area. Benefits are concentrated within all-inclusive resorts. provisioning - the majority of the local fishery is for local subsistence (Exton 2010). Evidence of turtles being exported illegally to a probably international market.|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Lobster Fishery||Not Applicable|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Green Turtle||global||Cultural services operating at a global scale, as people from around the world visit the Galapagos for nature tourism|
|International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)||Biophysical||Rhine Non-point source pollutants|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sharks||global||International market for cultural services through tourism|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Trophic Density||sub-national||Important cultural area for native Hawaiians|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Green Turtle||Not Applicable|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Humpback Whale||local||Cultural as in tourism benefits, local support for whale watching.|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||local||The rocky shoreline brings in a number of tourists for the Pacific Coastal trail. Tourism is a lucrative local industry.|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Coral Cover||global||International tourism market|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Green Turtle||global||Tourism in the area is focussed on dive tourism - turtles are a big draw.|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Reef Fish||international||Fishing is predominately local subsistence. There is some commercial fishing for skipjack tuna, but these boats are owned by outsiders.|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Groundfish Habitat||global||Local for cultural services e.g. SCUBA diving groundfish habitat operate locally. Global for provisional goods which are exported to many countries, including: China, Canada, Chile, Australia, Spain, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Bermuda, Norway, Curaco, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Aruba, France, Romania, Haiti, Cameroon, Croatia, Georgia, Ghana, Lebanon, Egypt, South Africa, Ukraine, Lituania, Russia, Grenada, Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom, Brazil, etc.|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Polar Bear||international||Tourists to Svalbard come from many different countries. Most tourists are either from Norway or other European countries, although some tourists are from other continents (Kaltenborn and Hindrum 1996).|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||international||Tourists come to view the southern right whales from the cliffs at the Head of Bight during calving season. This provides a cultural service through tourism benefits.|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Shrimp||global||Provisioning: global market for shrimp|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||international||Provisioning - SBT are sold internationally. Australian farmed tuna is sold almost exclusively to Japanese sashimi markets but some growers are looking further abroad to other markets, such as the United States.|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower coral reefs||Not Applicable|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR Green Turtle||international||The GBR is well-recognized internationally as a great tourist destination, including turtle watching.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||international||Tourists come to Heard Island explicitly to see wildlife, including all albatross species.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||King Penguin||international||Tourists come from across the world to see King Penguins at the Heard and McDonald Islands, however due to the remote location and renowned harsh weather and at-sea conditions, tourist trips to the Heard and McDonald Islands (via large commercial vessels or small personalized yachts) are very infrequent.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||international||Toothfish from HIMI support an international market as they are largely exported to USA, China and Japan (see, e.g., AFMA 2014).|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||global||A substantial Sea Lion tourist industry has developed|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Kittiwake||international||Tourists to Svalbard come from many different countries. Most tourists are either from Norway or other European countries, although some tourists are from other continents (Kaltenborn and Hindrum 1996 ).|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower groupers||Missing||NO DATA|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih coral cover||international||Tourism - high-end liveabord - is increasing in the area. Currently 6–10 dive liveaboard vessels.|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih target fish||global||Fishing is predominately local subsistence. There is some commercial fishing for skipjack tuna, but these boats are owned by outsiders. The illegal fishing, including ornamental fish trade and grouper live capture is conducted by outsiders (Biak). Erdmann pers comm.|
|Falkland Islands squid||Governance||Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||international||Provisioning is many (but not close to all) countries - Spain, Taiwan, India, South Africa, USA...|
|New Zealand squid||Governance||Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||international||Small Squid goes mainly to Croatia, Medium to China, Large to USA and some parts of Europe. NZ$71m was estimated to be exported to markets in China, Greece, Korea, the USA, Taiwan, Spain, and Italy during 2008. In New Zealand, squid can be purchased in supermarkets in the freezer section (Arkhipkin et al. 2015)|
|California squid||Governance||California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||international||Provisioning: Multiple countries (106 total) but primarily ~6 countries|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.