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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow high is the level of participation of this commons user group or their representatives in social monitoring (enforcement)?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceParticipation in various aspects of commons governance by local actors is associated with sustainable use of the commons (Gibson et al. 2005, Ashwini and Agrawal 2008, Persha et al. 2011). Specifically to local enforcement, its presence is related to a higher probability of commons regeneration (Gibson et al. 2005, Ashwini and Agrawal 2008).
Definition

This variable describes the level of participation this actor group or their representatives has in the social monitoring of the commons. High: The actor group is in charge of managing the resource with or without the support of the lead management agency. Medium: The lead management agency consults the actor group during the decision-making process. Low: The lead management agency informs the actor group of their decisions. None: The lead management agency does not seek input from the actor group.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)The Govenor monitors tourism. AECO, the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators, has created guidelines for tourism in Svalbard that shall be conducted for all member companies
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersLow (1)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau are not involved in any monitoring
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Monitoring is completed exclusively by onboard AFMA observers.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Monitoring is the responsibility of managers, not recreational fishers. Some informal peer-to-peer monitoring might occur, but little research exists on this.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)Monitoring mainly by NGOs, but some support from local community members
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researchers do not enforce Sanctuary rules. However they can play a role in reporting incidents or violations they have observed.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Monitoring is accomplished via onboard observer program.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researchers do not enforce Sanctuary rules. However they can play a role in reporting incidents or violations they have observed.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersMedium (2)Recreational users can help enforce rules, especially recreational business owners such as kayaking companies that make sure their customers adhere to Sanctuary rules through their own, or whale watching boats which can report violators.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenLow (1)Fishermen can report violations but do not enforce Sanctuary regulations.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)Tourism not directly involved in any enforcement, but tourism representative on the Participatory Management Board so coded as medium
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Commercial fishers can report violations but do not enforce regulations.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMedium (2)According to Elizabeth Taylor some of the fishing coops engage in social monitoring of its members and report violations in general.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Fishers could be involved in social monitoring by reporting IUU or other illegal activities to the AFMA, but there is no evidence that they do social monitoring or enforcement.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers 
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismLow (1)The Govenor monitors tourism. AECO, the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators, has created guidelines for tourism in Svalbard that shall be conducted for all member companies
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Commercial fishers can report violations but do not enforce regulations.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)Even with GPS trackers and on-board observers fishermen were fishing in no-take areas (G. Edgar pers comm)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring by local communities
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Monitoring is the responsibility of managers, not recreational fishers. Some informal peer-to-peer monitoring might occur, but little research exists on this.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)Enforcement is the responsibility of government managers; there might be some informal peer-to-peer enforcement, but little research on this.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)Local fishers patrol their MPAs as part of community patrols, overseen by the head of the MPA/village cheif (with support from NGOs (and Navy - but in reality this involvement is more sporadic)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)Fishermen formally involved in monitoring of turtles through community patrols in MPAs and on nesting beaches
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMissing
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau are not involved in any monitoring
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)No monitoring by local communities
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)The Bajau are not involved in monitoring
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)MPI consults with fishing groups, and MPI does receive anonymous tips regarding misconduct. DWG enforces their own standards on their own, not a legal framework but socially.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenMedium (2)Do report misconduct, but this isn't something frequently talked about.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersMedium (2)FIG consults with fishermen for enforcement purposes. Vessels are expected to help monitor the Loligo Box and inform management of any discrepancies.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)Commercial fishers can report violations but do not enforce regulations.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)Fishers could report IUU vessels.