|Variable Component Type||Pollutant, Natural Resource Unit|
|Theme||Spatial (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||What is the mobility of this commons?|
|Select Options||1 Sessile, 2 Medium, 3 High|
|Importance||The mobility of resource units has been recognized as an important variable in research on the commons (Schlager et al. 1994). The movement of resource units generally reduces the quality and reliability of information about stocks and flows, as well as the incentives of users to invest in conserving the commons and supporting ecosystems.|
"Spatial movemenof natural resource or pollutant units apart from any harvesting activity by resource users (Schlager et al. 1994). This variable can be combined with spatial extent to have an idea of the traceability of the commons units. High: The natural resource or pollutant unit can change its location quickly relative to the scale of human management. Medium: The natural resource or pollutant unit can change its location, but does so slowly relative to the scale of human management. Sessile: The natural resource or pollutant unit is static."
Schlager, Edella, William Blomquist, and Shui Yan Tang. 1994. Mobile Flows, Storage, and Self-Organized Institutions for Governing Common-Pool Resources. Land Economics 70 (3): 294-317.
|Galapagos Sea Cucumber||Medium (2)||Sea cucumbers are slowly mobile, with little movement of sea cucumbers between islands.|
|Ozone Depleting Substances||High (3)|
|Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||High (3)||Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna travel throughout the Western Atlantic Ocean, and migrate across into the Eastern Atlantic. They can reach speeds of up to 60 km/h.|
|Rhine Point source pollutants||High (3)||Although moderated by the existence of dams along the Rhine's course, water and thus the pollutants' mobility is high compared to human standards|
|Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna||High (3)||Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna migrate extensively throughout the Eastern-Mid Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea and can travel at speed up to 60 km/h.|
|Rhine Non-point source pollutants||High (3)||Although moderated by the existence of dams along the Rhine's course, water and thus the pollutants' mobility is high compared to human standards|
|GBR target fish|
|GBR target fish||Medium (2)||Varies by species. Compared to sessile resources, like coral or trees, and global migratory species or pollutants target fish are considered to be moderately mobile. ~10km (as opposed to 1km or 100Km)|
|NWHI Lobster Fishery||Medium (2)||Spiny lobsters move between 18-90 m in depth, depending on age.|
|Wakatobi coral cover||Sessile (1)|
|Light Mantled Albatross||High (3)||Light mantled albatross have been known to travel up to 1500 km from breeding sites to forage; and a total distance of over 6000km (Weimerskirch & Robertson 1994).|
|Wakatobi Green Turtle||High (3)||Migratory species|
|Wakatobi fish spawning||Medium (2)||Not sessile, but not highly migratory, therefore considered to have medium mobility|
|Galapagos Green Turtle||High (3)||Migratory species|
|Patagonian Toothfish||Medium (2)||Toothfish are capable of moving between large distances, but the vast majority tend to be resident in a small area, with some but limited movements to nearby areas (see Collins et al. 2010 and references therein). For example, 99% of the fish tagged and recaptured around the Heard and McDonald Islands were found (1-3 years later) within 30 km of where they were originally tagged. However, some fish were found more than 1800 km away (Williams et al. 2002).|
|NWHI Green Turtle||High (3)||Migratory species|
|Raja Ampat Reef Fish||Medium (2)||Varies by species. Compared to sessile resources, like coral or trees, and global migratory species or pollutants target fish are considered to be moderately mobile.|
|Raja Ampat Coral Cover||Sessile (1)|
|Galapagos Sharks||High (3)||Sharks highly mobile|
|Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||High (3)||Royal penguins on Macquarie island have been known to travel up to 600 km to forage during the nesting season; travelling at speeds of between 4.6 and 7.8 km/h|
|Raja Ampat Green Turtle||High (3)||Migratory species|
|Community D Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Community A Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Community B Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Community C Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|California Humpback Whale||High (3)||Humpback whales have the longest migration of any mammal. The stock found off the coast of the California sanctuaries travel to Mexico, Hawaii, and Central America.|
|Seaflower coral reefs||Sessile (1)||Permanently attached to the benthos.|
|Seaflower groupers||Medium (2)||Relatively high site fidelity.|
|Svalbard Polar Bear||Medium (2)||The home range of individual polar bears can vary widely from 200km2 to upwards of 400,000km2. The ranges can overlap with other bears, and as a whole, the general population is found in reasonably consistent regions throughout the year. Female bears show fidelity to den areas, but necessarily to specific den sites (Zeyl et al 2010).|
|Community G Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Community F Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Community E Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Community H Fish Resources||Medium (2)|
|Svalbard Shrimp||Medium (2)||Compared to species of mammals and fish, shrimp mobility is quite low.|
|Svalbard Beluga||Medium (2)||Belugas often show “local roaming” within regions in search of prey (e.g. within the boundaries of the nature reserves), and often show “long distance” movements between regions during different seasons (Boltunov & Belikov 2002).|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||High (3)||SBT are highly migratory, occurring throughout the southern hemisphere oceans (Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans) between 30–50° S, though the species is mainly found in the eastern Indian Ocean and in the south-west Pacific Ocean (BRS 2008, TSSC 2010). They make long distance migrations to a single spawning ground in the north-east Indian Ocean (BRS 2008). The species can travel up to 70 kilometres per hour while feeding (TSSC 2010).|
|Cenderwasih target fish||Medium (2)||Varies by species. Compared to sessile resources, like coral or trees, and global migratory species or pollutants target fish are considered to be moderately mobile.|
|GBR Green Turtle||High (3)||Green turtles may travel over hundreds or thousands of kilometers. Turtles in the GBR have been known to travel as far away as Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia (GBRMPA [online]).|
|Cenderwasih green turtle||High (3)||Migratory species|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||High (3)||Southern right whales have a circumpolar distribution between latitudes of 16 degrees South and 65 degrees South. Between May and October the Australian population of southern right whales migrates between higher latitude feeding grounds (between 40 degrees South and 65 degrees South) to calving/nursery grounds in coastal Australian waters. It is thought that in the spring, the southern right whales move offshore from the Great Australian Bight to higher latitude foraging areas and down towards the ice-edge off Antarctica.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||Medium (2)|
|King Penguin||High (3)||King Penguins forage at great depths and have high mobility. They are among the world's deepest diving seabirds, second only to Emperor penguins. They usually forage between 100-200 meters, but have been recorded diving to 440 m. During the summer season, then tend to stay within 500 meters of their breeding colonies, while in the winter, they have been recorded traveling up to 1800 km from their colony (5000 km traveled round trip; Putz et al. 1999).|
|Svalbard Kittiwake||High (3)||Migratory species|
|Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||Medium (2)||Tagging experiments indicate that arrow squid can travel on average about 1.1 km per day with a range of 0.14–5.6 km per day (MF 2009). Both species in New Zealand are thought to migrate to shallower water to spawn. N gouldi is capable of prolonged and extensive swimming. They have been recorded travelling 193km in four days during a mark-recapture experiment (Sato & Hatanaka, 1983). However, they do not seem to undertake any lengthy migrations. It is possible that they migrate on and off the continental shelf. This has been shown for other ommastrephid squid species (Hatfield & Rodhouse, 1994). No mark–recapture experiments have been run using N. sloanii, however as the congeners are similar in morphology it is assumed that N. sloanii has a similar mobility to N. gouldi (McKinnon 2007). Forages in mesopelagic waters (Dunn 2009). Juveniles found near surface to <200 m depth.|
|California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||High (3)||Migrate from Baja Mexico up to Alaska, though most spawning occurs in Southern and Central California (Vojkovich 1998). Also do daily vertical migrations.|
|New Zealand Sea Lion|
|Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||Medium (2)||L. gahi do migrate, but remains primarily within the same region and at known depths. The Patagonian longfin squid Loligo gahi undertakes spatial ontogenetic migrations on the Falkland shelf: juveniles move from spawning grounds located in shallow, inshore waters (20-50 m depths) to feeding grounds near the shelf edge (200-350 m depths). Immature squid feed and grow in these offshore feeding grounds and, upon maturation, migrate back to inshore waters to spawn (Arkhipkin et al. 2004).|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.