|Variable Component Type||Natural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System|
|Theme||Biophysical (learn about themes)|
|Question||How scarce is this resource?|
|Select Options||Not scarce -- abundant, Moderately scarce, Highly scarce|
|Importance||The importance of scarcity and abundance most frequently is seen in the importance of having strict institutions that govern the extraction of a resource. With highly scarce resources, in frequently matters much more precisely what institutions are implemented, and how well these are enforced. With abundant resources there may be much more leeway in this regard.|
Scarcity is the opposite of abundance. A non-scarce, or abundant, resource is one that is available in amounts associated with an almost total lack of human use, or at least at levels comparable to this. A highly scarce resource is one that is substantially below this level, and is potentially in danger of being entirely exhausted.
|Gilded traps||Low -- abundant|
|Case||Interaction Type||Component||Value Used||Explanation|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sea Cucumber||scarce (Highly)||Depleted fishery - IUCN Red List: Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/180373/0 The boom in the sea cucumber fishery (1993-2000). so just at the start of the time period being coded. Given that the fishery been over-exploited/depleted for the majority of the snap-shot being looked at - coded as scare.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi Green Turtle||scarce (Moderately)||100 nests/season - given that females nest more than once per season, this indicates a population of <100 mature females - coded as moderately scarce http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/asiaandthepacific/indonesia/explore/safe-haven-for-turtles.xml|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Green Turtle||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Comparatively turtles are abundant in the Galapagos (>1000 nests per season)|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea Lion||scarce (Highly)||The Australian Sea Lion is endemic to Australia. Populations are declining, and it is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Its extant breeding range extends from The Pages Islands (just east of Kangaroo Island) in South Australia to Houtman Abrolhos on the west coast of Western Australia.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Macquarie Island Royal Penguin||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Within the Macquarie Island Marine Park and the Island itself, Royal Penguin are abundant.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||scarce (Moderately)||Toothfish resources are moderately scarce in that they can maintain small fisheries; but could be depleted fairly easily.|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Coral Cover||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Some of the highest coral cover in the world|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Lobster Fishery||scarce (Moderately)||This species has previously been heavily fished, with declines of >80% in catch per unit effort data recorded (mid 1970s to 1999) in the NWHI fishery. The fishery has been closed since 2000, but ancedotal reports indicate populations have showed no sign of recovery (A. Wilhelm pers comm).
Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A. 2013. Panulirus marginatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. |
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR coral cover||scarce (Moderately)||Coral cover is naturally patchy|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Green Turtle||scarce (Moderately)||Illegal poaching of turtles and their eggs have reduced population numbers in the area|
|Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)||Governance||Raja Ampat Reef Fish||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Fish communities are generally considered to be fairly healthy - but there is evidence of overfishing with an absence of higher trophic species (Purwanto et al. 2012)|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Green Turtle||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Based on population estimates, there may be >265,600 turtles in this subpopulation with 61,000 resident in Hawaiian coastal habitats (Chaloupka and Balazs 2007).|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Groundfish Habitat||scarce (Moderately)||The habitat itself ranges from various types, but covers a large area of the sanctuary grounds. There are locations that are not ideal for groundfish.|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin Tuna||scarce (Highly)||This species has been intensively fished since the early 1950s and the dramatic decline in the total population of SBT to 7–15% of the 1960 parental biomass is well documented (FSC 2009). Estimated spawning stock biomass has declined by approximately 85% over the past 36 years (1973–2009) and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding. In 2009 stock assessments estimated the species was around 5% or less of unfished levels.|
|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National Monument||Governance||NWHI Trophic Density||scarce -- abundant (Not)||High trophic density levels. Considered a relatively pristine ecosystem|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Shrimp||scarce (Moderately)||The shrimp population is fairly healthy and has been at a fairly high level since 2005|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Patagonian Toothfish||scarce (Moderately)||Toothfish are capable of supporting small-scale fisheries, but due to their life history (slow growth, later age at maturity, long-lived) and relatively small populations, they are vulnerable to overexploitation.|
|Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)||Governance||GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right Whale||scarce (Moderately)||This resource is still scarce relative to its historic abundance (55,000 to 70,000 whales), but there is an observed rate of increase in Australia (7% per annum) and at the Head of Bight (annual growth rate is 5.5%) (IWC 2001; Charlton et al. 2014). The Australian population was estimated ~2,100 in 2005. The southern right whale is still listed as Endangered by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, in Appendix I of CITES, but as a species of Least Concern by the IUCN Red List. The security of the species is not yet assured as numbers remain at likely less than 10% of pre-exploitation abundance (IWC 2001).|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Rocky Shores Ecosystem Health||scarce (Moderately)||This habitat consists of 56% of the MBNMS coastline and 22% of the previous GFNMS coastline, thus is moderately scarce (EIS 2008, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, 2010). In 2010, rocky intertidal habitat was rated as good/fair and conditions appeared to be improving (Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, 2010). However, within the estuarine and lagoon environments, habitat was declining and fair/poor. Since then, key species have experienced substantially increased mortalities (e.g. purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.), gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus) (Jurgens et al. 2015).|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||scarce (Moderately)||There are only an estimated 200-500 nesting pairs of Light Mantled Albatross in the HIMI region (Woehler 2006).|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih coral cover||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Coral reefs considered to be in relatively good health and are fairly extensive (see maps in management plan)|
|Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)||Governance||Galapagos Sharks||scarce (Moderately)||Compartively sharks are abundant in the Galapagos which is why they are a dive tourism destination|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Kittiwake||scarce -- abundant (Not)||The black-legged kittiwake is the most numerous species of gull in the world. In Svalbard the kittiwake is a common breeding species in all parts of the archipelago.|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR target fish||scarce -- abundant (Not)|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower coral reefs||scarce (Moderately)||Its most recent estimates (from 2014) for Old Providence and Santa Catalina indicate that coral cover is at 6.4%. This information comes from the Seaflower monitoring report for Old Providence and Santa Catalina (2014).|
|Central California National Marine Sanctuaries||Governance||California Humpback Whale||scarce (Moderately)||While population levels have increased and the IUCN lists the humpback as "Least Concern" LC, the Endangered Species Act lists the humpback. However, NOAA Fisheries proposes to revise the ESA listing for the humpback whale to identify 14 Distinct Population Segments (DPS), list 2 as threatened and 2 as endangered, and identify 10 others as not warranted for listing (NMFS, Species, April 2015).|
|Svalbard Nature Reserves||Governance||Svalbard Polar Bear||scarce (Moderately)||Encounters with polar bears are common enough that groups are required to carry guns for protection/to scare away the bear when leaving the settlements.|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve||Governance||King Penguin||scarce -- abundant (Not)||King penguins were heavily harvested (perhaps to the point of extirpation) on HIMI during the sealing era in the 1800s but a visit to the islands in 1947 revealed three penguins and they have since recolonized the islands, growing linearly (doubling every five years) to at least 80,000 pairs (counted in 2003/04; Woehler 2006; E. Woehler pers. comm.).|
|Falkland Islands squid||Governance||Patagonian squid (Loligo gahi)||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Beginning of 2015 was one of the highest biomasses (~36.000 tonnes) revealed prior the first fishing season. Over the last two decades, total annual catches of D. gahi in the Falkland Islands have ranged from 24,000 to 98,000 t (Figure 30) with a mean of 51,000 t (Arkhipkin et al., 2013). Abundance depends on environmental conditions. Weak stock recruitment relationship.|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi coral cover||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Coral reefs considered to be in relatively good health and are fairly extensive within the WNP (McMellor and Smith 2010)|
|Wakatobi National Park||Governance||Wakatobi fish spawning||scarce (Moderately)||Spawning numbers have been historically greatly reduced - such species are now moderately scarce.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park||Governance||Light Mantled Albatross||scarce (Moderately)||Light mantled albatross are somewhat scarce in the area around Macquarie Island|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park||Governance||GBR Green Turtle||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Two genetic stocks of green turtles breed within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, a southern and a northern stock. The southern stock has nesting concentrated in the Capricorn/Bunker group of islands, with an average annual nesting population estimated at 8000 females. The northern stock has nesting concentrated around Raine Island and Moulter Cay with an average annual nesting population of 30,000 females. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/animals/marine-turtles/green-turtle|
|Cenderwasih National Park||Governance||Cenderwasih target fish||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Fish communities are generally considered to be fairly healthy, but long history of fishing and few large fish.|
|New Zealand squid||Governance||Arrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Depends on season. Sometimes availability is low, but pretty much no massive busts. No evidence of overfishing.|
|California squid||Governance||California market squid (Loligo opalescens)||scarce -- abundant (Not)||Depends on oceanic conditions, sometimes abundant sometimes scarce.|
|Seaflower MPA||Governance||Seaflower groupers||scarce (Moderately)||4kg per hectare|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.