|Variable Component Type||Actor|
|Theme||Social capital (learn about themes)|
|Question||How frequently do the actors within this group, or individual representatives, communicate in person?|
|Select Options||1 Never, 2 Less than once every 2 years, 3 Once every 2 years, 4 Once a year, 5 More than once a year|
|Importance||Empirical and experimental research has shown that communication among actors can influence how effective rule-making for collective action is within a group (Poteete and Ostrom 2010). Communication as a way of sharing conceptual and practical information and ideas underpins collaboration and co-operation. Both type and frequency of communication are expected to be important. It complements the variable ActorRemoteCommunication.|
This variable records the frequency of face-to-face communication within actor groups (e.g., in-person meetings, virtual meetings such as video conferencing).
|Communication and collective action||Frequent (e.g. More than once a year)|
|Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)||Frequent (e.g. More than once a year)|
|Galapagos Artisan Fishermen||More than once a year (5)||No specific information on the frequency of meetings was found. However, regular meetings do occur for each cooperative, and General Assemblies summoned when significant decisions must be made at which the members of the cooperative are obligated to attend.|
|"New Order" Indonesian Central Government (1965-1998)||More than once a year (5)||Although not all members of this group communicated on a frequent basis with each other, some subgroups communicated with each other very frequently (on a daily basis).|
|Indonesian "Adat" Communities||More than once a year (5)||Within groups, communication is frequent, between groups it is less frequent though also regular through social movements and organizations like AMAN.|
|Civil society organizations in Indonesia||?|
|ICCAT Contracting Parties||More than once a year (5)|
|ICCAT Western Members||ICCAT contracting parties meet regularly, but there are no separate meetings for ICCAT Western Members.|
|ICCAT Eastern Members||ICCAT contracting parties meet regularly, but there are no separate meetings for ICCAT Eastern Members.|
|Ozone Nation States||Once a year (4)|
|ICPR nations (1976-1986)||Less than once every 2 years (2)||This answer applies strictly to the ICPR formal meetings; however, representatives communicate more than once per year in the European Union-related venues|
|GBR government co-managers||More than once a year (5)|
|GBR recreational fishers||More than once a year (5)|
|NWHI Researchers||Not Applicable|
|California Sanctuary Recreational Users||Missing||Varies widely, sometimes often sometimes never|
|California Groundfish Fishermen||More than once a year (5)||Fishermen discuss frequently at landing sites and markets. Also, association meetings provide a forum for in person communication.|
|California State and Federal Fisheries Agencies||More than once a year (5)||Team members typically work on a day to day basis together, and there are multiple meetings throughout the year bringing the two agencies together.|
|Svalbard Tourism||More than once a year (5)||Members are all invited to participate in the Annual General Meeting (AGM). Members who are part of committees also have an AGM, and may meet more frequently.|
|Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Managers||More than once a year (5)||All know each other, work in the same building in the same wing, and talk daily|
|New Zealand Fishery Managers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate daily|
|New Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate frequently|
|SCUBA diving businesses on Gili Trawangan||More than once a year (5)||Almost daily communication|
|Gili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)||More than once a year (5)||Meetings twice a month|
|Misool Eco Resort|
|Large Extractive Industries in Indonesia||Does this refer to inter or intra group?|
|Indonesian Local entrepreneurs||? Some members of this group communicate with each other, but it isn't clear to me how to fill out this variable, since the group as a whole doesn't communicate at any time.|
|Indonesian District Governments||Does this refer to inter or intra group. Within districts, individuals communicate very frequently (far more than once per year) but between districts, they do not communicate.|
|"Reformasi" Indonesian Central Government (1998-2012)||More than once a year (5)||Different components of the government are in frequent (daily) communication. While we don't have direct evidence, we assume that at least some of this communication occurs in person (i.e. in govt. office buildings).|
|Ozone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers||More than once a year (5)|
|Ozone Secretariat||More than once a year (5)|
|ICPR nations (1986-2000)||Less than once every 2 years (2)||See "ICPR Nations (1987-1986)"|
|Rhine chemical firms|
|Rhine agricultural sector|
|GBR fisheries managers||More than once a year (5)||Frequent communication over agency policies and management through meetings and workshops.|
|GBR commercial fishers||More than once a year (5)||In meetings and workshops organised by the QSIA or government. And at landing sites and markets.|
|National Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAA||More than once a year (5)||Members of the NOAA office meet regularly.|
|Raja Ampat Tourism||More than once a year (5)|
|Australian Toothfish Fishers||More than once a year (5)||Industry representatives meet multiples times a year through a variety of forums including SARAG (the Subantarctic Resource Assessment Group, which meets multiple times a year), SouthMAC (the Subantarctic Fisheries Management Advisory Committee, which meets at least once a year), CCAMLR meetings, COLTO meetings.|
|Wakatobi Bajau fishers||More than once a year (5)||The Bajau have high communication and cohesion as a group.|
|NWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship||More than once a year (5)||Assumed because government agencies|
|Wakatobi managers||More than once a year (5)||Hold meetings more than once a year|
|Svalbard Resource Managers||More than once a year (5)||Although precise figures are unknown, coordinating monitoring efforts for tourism and environment would require considerable communication.|
|Australian Antarctic Division||More than once a year (5)||More than 300 individuals work for the AAD, but they all work in close proximity, with many in the same office.|
|GMR managers||More than once a year (5)||Assumed|
|Riparian Nations (1976-1986)|
|Charles Darwin Foundation||More than once a year (5)||Well-organised, international organisation|
|Galapagos Tourism Sector||More than once a year (5)||Assumed due to coordination and reporting|
|Raja Ampat Artisanal Fishers||More than once a year (5)|
|CORALINA||More than once a year (5)||All of them work for the same entity in the same location.|
|California Academic Researchers||More than once a year (5)||Many researchers meet regularly in person about projects or while collecting data for projects. Conferences and workshops provide in person communication opportunities as well.|
|Australian Fisheries Management Authority||More than once a year (5)||AFMA representatives meet multiples times a year through a variety of forums including SARAG (the Subantarctic Resource Assessment Group, which meets multiple times a year), SouthMAC (the Subantarctic Fisheries Management Advisory Committee, which meets at least once a year), and in and around CCAMLR meetings.|
|Raja Ampat Managers||More than once a year (5)|
|Macquarie Island Managers||Missing|
|Seaflower artisanal fishers||More than once a year (5)||Most likely they depend on interpersonal communication for a variety of reasons: fishing spots, safety, regulation. Also some of them should live in close proximity or fish from same ports/areas. However, artisanal fishers come from 3 different islands and I am not sure what is the level of communication among those subgroups.|
|Svalbard Shrimp Fishers||Missing||Unknown|
|Galapagos Charles Darwin Foundation||More than once a year (5)||Well-organised, international organisation|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Director of National Parks||More than once a year (5)||The executive team, which includes the Director and the 4 senior executives, and senior staff meet regularly to address strategic directions and current issues. Marine Division staff also participate in regular meetings, advising the Director on Commonwealth marine reserve issues.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers||More than once a year (5)||Stated in the CFA modus operandi, the association meets regularly with internal (voting members, associate members, ordinary members, staff and board) and external constituents (government agencies, environmental groups, industry (e.g. oil and gas)).|
|Cenderwasih fishers||More than once a year (5)|
|Cenderwasih managers||More than once a year (5)||Assumed to be coordination through reporting to central governement and WWF annual reports|
|Patagonian Squid Trawlers||More than once a year (5)||Communicate frequently, families and neighbors|
|California market squid fishermen||More than once a year (5)||Some daily, others frequently|
|Indonesian Institute of Sciences - LIPI||Not Applicable|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Managers||More than once a year (5)||Work in same office, frequent meetings|
|Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio)||Missing|
|Brazilian Institute of the Environment & Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA)||Missing|
|Isla Caballo AMPR Costa Rica||More than once a year (5)|
|Paquera-Tambor AMPR Costa Rica||More than once a year (5)|
|Secretary of State for the Environment of Pará (SEMA) in Brazil||Missing|
|Association of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in Brazil||Less than once every 2 years (2)||Low communication|
|Lombok aquaculture farmers||More than once a year (5)|
|Gili EcoTrust on Gili Trawangan||More than once a year (5)|
|Palito-Montero AMPR Costa Rica||More than once a year (5)|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.