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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionWhat is the general trend in the condition (enhanced or degraded) of regulating services (e.g. climate, water regulation, disease regulation) derived from the commons during the time frame of this snapshot?
Select Options1 Worsened, 2 Mixed effects or remained the same, 3 Improving
Unit
Role
Importance"The provisioning services provided by a commons is an important outcome of interest that project members can try to explain. Ecosystem services are a lens through which human benefits from ecosystems can be considered (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Daily et al. 2000). This question seeks to ascertain whether the condition of provisioning services has worsened, is mixed or remained the same, or improved for an actor group. The variable applies to all relevant cultural services of the resource and governance system for that actor group."
Definition

"This variable describes trends in the condition of regulating services provided by the commons in an interaction. Regulating services are defined by the Millennium Assessment (2005) as ""…the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, including: Air quality maintenance. Ecosystems both contribute chemicals to and extract chemicals from the atmosphere, influencing many aspects of air quality. Climate regulation. Ecosystems influence climate both locally and globally. For example, at a local scale, changes in land cover can affect both temperature and precipitation. At the global scale, ecosystems play an important role in climate by either sequestering or emitting greenhouse gases. „ Water regulation. The timing and magnitude of runoff, flooding, and aquifer recharge can be strongly influenced by changes in land cover, including, in particular, alterations that change the water storage potential of the system, such as the conversion of wetlands or the replacement of forests with croplands or croplands with urban areas. Erosion control. Vegetative cover plays an important role in soil retention and the prevention of landslides.„ Water purification and waste treatment. Ecosystems can be a source of impurities in fresh water but also can help to filter out and decompose organic wastes introduced into inland waters and coastal and marine ecosystems. Regulation of human diseases. Changes in ecosystems can directly change the abundance of human pathogens, such as cholera, and can alter the abundance of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes. Biological control. Ecosystem changes affect the prevalence of crop and livestock pests and diseases. Pollination. Ecosystem changes affect the distribution, abundance, and effectiveness of pollinators. Storm protection. The presence of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs can dramatically reduce the damage caused by hurricanes or large waves."""

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)Declining forest cover led to a decline in the ability of this system to provide all forms of ecosystem services in this time period.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaWorsened (1)Less forests means less regulating services available.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneWorsened (1)
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaNot Applicable
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Effect based on zoning system, which is what GBRMPA and QPWS use for management. At the scale of the whole reef, too much land-based run-off (sedimentation, nutrients) negatively affects coral cover. Locally, though, no-take areas can increase coral cover by maintaining a healthy ecosystem.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthMixed effects or remained the same (2)Erosion has remained the same (not mentioned as an ecosystem which has led to less or more erosion).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fish 
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneWorsened (1)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishMixed effects or remained the same (2)Resilience may be improving. But outcomes for biodiversity are mixed
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberMixed effects or remained the same (2)Another sea cucmber is present and not fished which appears to be fulfilling the same ecological role (e.g. nutrient cycling) - although detailed ecological interactions and ecosystem service rpovisions are not well understood so it may be too early to tell the system-level impacts.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Effect based on zoning system, which is what GBRMPA and QPWS use for management. At the scale of the whole reef, too much land-based run-off (sedimentation, nutrients) negatively affects coral cover. Locally, though, no-take areas can increase coral cover by maintaining a healthy ecosystem.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Destruction of reefs from blast and poison fishing are not so extensive as to have significantly impacted the regulating services of the reefs.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Not Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish Not Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Not Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleNot Applicable
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)Not Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverMixed effects or remained the same (2)Assume the regualting services from coral reefs remain the same as no major changes reported for the reefs
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsWorsened (1)Coral reef is an important contributor to proper ecosystem functioning. Decrease in the live coral cover suggests that its role in ecosystem functioning greatly diminished.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishNot Applicable
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Not Applicable
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Not Applicable