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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhich of the following characterizes the process by which property rights to extract or emit this resource were granted to this actor group?
Select OptionsBased on historic extraction/emission rates, Based on current extraction/emission rates, Based on amount of land owned, Based on rights in another resource, Based on need, Based on political dynamics (power), Based on ethnic group, Based on gender, Based on nationality, Based on sale or auction, Based on random assignment or lottery
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceInitial granting of rights is widely considered to influence the use of those rights. Rights granting processes that are viewed as more fair or legitimate may be more likely to be respected. Rights granting processes that are based on current or past uses may grandfather in historical practices, incentivizing increases in pollution or resource extraction levels, but may also protect vulnerable populations.
Definition

The rights granting process refers to the way in which any kind of right to extract or emit resources was conferred on rights holders. A number of kinds of processes are available as chocies:

"Based on historic extraction/emission rates" refers to rights that are granted based on past levels of use - sometimes referred to as "grandfathering."

"Based on current extraction/emission rates" refers to rights granted based on current levels of use.

"Based on amount of land owned" refers to rights that are proportional to land ownership.

"Based on rights to another commons" refers to rights granted based on other rights (not including those already mentioned).

"Based on need" refers to rights granting processes that allocate rights based on need for the benefits derived from the rights to the commons.

"Based on political dynamics (power)" refers to processes where rights are granted to those who have political influence or power over the rights granting process

"Based on ethnic group" refers to rights allocated based on membership in a particular ethnic group.

"Based on gender" refers to rights allocated based on gender.

"Based on nationality" refers to rights grant processes that allocate rights primarily based on citizenship.

"Based on sale or auction" refers to processes whereby original rights are sold or auctioned.

"Based on random assignment or lottery" refers to processes whereby rights are assigned by lottery or random assignment.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Decentralization and elite captureBased on political dynamics (power)

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities This group had previously informally recognized rights denied to it by the dictatorship.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia Rights were granted during this period based on political connections to the central government.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNot Applicable
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneurs local political dynamics appear to play an important role in determining what rights (formal or informal) individuals have.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia this group does not possess rights
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities"""Based on historic extraction/emission rates"" To the extent that this group can be said to have formal rights, it is through legal recognition of customary law ("adat") which is based on historic usage.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia Access to concessions appears to continue to be dominated by historical and current political patronage.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish Fishermen["Based on historic extraction/emission rates"]Quotas are determined by historical involvement in the fishery (CDFW Groundfish Central).
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial Producers[]Rights granting process varies by country. Most countries allocate rights to produce ODS first by considering the availability of substitutes for particular uses, and then use one or more additional methods to assign rights within sectors.
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers Not applicable
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on current extraction/emission rates"]Quotas adjusted in response to stock assessments and GBR outlook reports
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan Fishermen["Based on nationality", "Based on sale or auction"]Initially open, then cut off with Special Law to only Galapagos residents
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic Researchers["Based on need"]Extraction only occurs for research purposes.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[""]
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector["Based on sale or auction"]Permits are applied for and purchased http://www.galapagospark.org/nophprg.php?page=turismo_patentes
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Based on need"]May also be granted according to nationality though Bajao are often described as stateless stakeholders.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on ethnic group"]Bajau migrate across south-east Asia so not sure whether rights are also granted by nationality. Bajau normally considered as stateless stakeholders.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on ethnic group"]May also be granted according to nationality though Bajau are often described as stateless stakeholders.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on ethnic group"]
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Based on ethnic group"]Traditional rights
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal Fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on amount of land owned", "Based on ethnic group"]Based on traditional tenure, which also applied to the sea/reefs
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers[""]Rights are granted based on the quantity of hooks set
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CMissing
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers["Based on need"]Bag limits are roughly based on subsistence allowances, though fishers could extract a bag everyday as they are not limited in how often they fish per year.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates"]Note: Norway chose to allocate rights based on historic extraction, partly because this could help reduce the amount other countries could fish in the area. Due to the Svalbard Treaty, all countries are entitled to equal economic access, but Norway is allowed to make the rules. Therefore, this rule is a way to partly exclude other countries from the fishery (which might be indirectly considered ‘Based on Ethnic Groups’).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishers["Based on ethnic group"]Artisanal fishers are members of the Raizal ethnic group: they are" a national ethnic minority by Colombia and recognized as indigenous by the UN. Raizals descend from English settlers who started arriving in 1630 on the Seaflower (sister ship of the Mayflower), African slaves, and migrants from other Caribbean islands. They have a long sociocultural and economic history distinct from mainland Colombia. Besides having a different language, religion, and ethnicity, the archipelago's isolation meant that the people had a high level of self-determination for over 300 years, mostly controlling their natural resources and marine-based economy until the middle of the 20th century." (from MPA NEWS, Vol. 16, No. 5: REFLECTING ON MARINE TERRITORY: SEAFLOWER MPA, THE RAIZAL PEOPLE, AND THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on current extraction/emission rates"]Quotas adjusted in response to stock assessments.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on ethnic group"]Traditional rights
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EMissing
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates", "Based on ethnic group"]Traditional rights
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish Fishers["Based on current extraction/emission rates"]Rights are granted on a per vessel basis.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FMissing
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid Fishers[""]Originally based on historical landings. Also based on nationality (quota must be owned by NZ company or individual). Now based on sale.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermen[""]First: based on historic extraction rates Now: based on sale Also based on nationality: Under the Bartlett Act it is unlawful for foreign-flag vessels "to engage in the taking of any Continental Shelf fishery resource which appertains to the United States except as provided in this chapter or as expressly provided by an international agreement to which the United States is a party."
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial Fishers["Based on historic extraction/emission rates"]
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AMissing
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid Trawlers[""]ITQs and possibly companies on register based on historic extraction, quotas now based on sale. Based on nationality as well.