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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeCategorical
Variable Component TypeFormal System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBasic (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionWhat type of (formal) governance system is this?
Select OptionsManagement plan, System of laws, Treaty
ImportanceThis variable does not necessarily have theoretical (causal) importance. But it can be important to identify what types of governance systems tend to have what effects on different types of commons problems.

"The management plan option specifies that there is a structure of rules which is derived from the formal legal system such as acts, statutes, and laws. The system of laws option indicates that the governance system in case is derived directly form the formal legal system such as acts, statutes, and laws. The treaty option specifies that a governance system in place is based on a formally concluded and ratified agreement among states."


Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998System of lawsThis was a formal governance system based on a nation state, and thus is a system of laws.
"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012System of lawsThis is a system of laws governing forest management.
ICCAT Governance SystemTreatyICCAT was created as a convention among contracting parties.
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanManagement planManagement plan has been implemented in the context of enabling legislation
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaManagement plan
GMR governance system 1998-currentManagement planSystem of Laws and Management plan. Coded together as one governance system.
Montreal ProtocolTreaty
Rhine Chemicals ConventionTreaty
Rhine Action PlanManagement planThe overall goal of the program is to improve water quality by meeting the following objectives, by the year 2000 (Van den Brink et al. 1994; Van Dijk et al. 1995): 1) To create conditions that can support the return of higher trophic level species such as Salmon salar; 2) To protect the Rhine River as a source for drinking water; 3) To decrease the contamination of sediments, suspended matter, and the biota due to toxic compounds; 4) To meet water quality standards mandated in the North Sea Action Plan; 5) To follow the ‘Ecological Master Plan for the Rhine River’. This plan dictates two major ecosystem based goals: a) To restore the mainstream and its main tributaries, as habitats for migratory fish; and b) To improve and protect ecologically important areas of the Rhine River and the Rhine valley with an emphasis on increasing the biodiversity of indigenous flora and fauna. The initial years of the Rhine Action Program focused exclusively on water quality improvement. The Rhine states agreed on a target reduction of 50% of the pollution caused by priority compounds by the year 1995. In addition water quality targets were set for about 50 priority compounds based on the requirements for drinking water supply, the protection of aquatic life forms, and on human tolerance levels for fish consumption (Schulte, 1992). Rehabilitation efforts involved sewage and water treatment plants, decrease in point source discharges, reinforcing shorelines with large stones and planting of riparian vegetation, and use of seasonal chemical and biological concentration techniques to monitor water quality.
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Management planThe Act is implemented through a management plan.
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentManagement planThe Act is implemented through a management plan.
Wakatobi National Park 2008-currentManagement planManagement plan: The Act is established through the 25-year management plan
NWHI Monument Act 2006Management planA management plan was produced in 2008 by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The Monument is simply an agreement between the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the State of Hawaii, which form the co-trusteeship that manages the Monument.
Magnuson-Stevens ActSystem of laws
Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanManagement planManagement plan has been implemented in the context of enabling legislation
Raja Ampat Governance SystemSystem of lawsFocussed on the System of Laws - there is a formal management plan that includes components for each of the MPAs, and a management plan for the whole network, but there is contention over which MPAs are to be finally included in this plan (there are currently two versions - one included Kawe and one without).
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System Management planThe management plan contains the framework for how to manage the sanctuaries and divides tasks into program areas, and also provides the legal framework regulations to enforce Sanctuary laws.
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Management plan
Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanManagement plan
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActSystem of lawsThe first laws were established with the parks creation in 1973. The Svalbard Environmental Protection Act in 2001 further elaborates on these initial regulations.
Seaflower MPA Act 2005System of lawsIt is the creation act. I could not have found the actual management plan for this MPA.
Galapagos Governance System 1998-currentManagement planSystem of Laws and Management plan. Coded together as one governance system.
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanManagement planManagement plans have been designed and implemented under the appropriate legislation.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Management plan2000-2005, and 2005-2012. The park is managed by the Director of National Parks in the Department of the Environment. The plan describes all activities allowed and the provisions in place to manage those activities.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanManagement plan
Cenderwasih governance systemSystem of lawsCoded as a system of laws from 2002 when the Park was formally designated (National Act No. 5 1990 (Ministry of Forestry)). A management plan came into effect in 2010-2029
The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)System of lawsFisheries are managed based on a number of laws and ordinances (FICZ, 2005 ordinance, etc). The FICZ set up the jurisdiction for future laws and regulations.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanManagement planThe MSFMP has been developed under the provisions set forth by California’s Marine Life Management Act (MLMA). The Federal government manages the marine resources and fishing activities of the United States (US) through the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA).
New Zealand Quota Management SystemSystem of lawsQMS was introduced with the Fisheries Amendment Act 1986. A series of Fisheries amendments have been introduced since, most notably the Fisheries Act of 1996. Management plans just being discussed now.
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilManagement plan
Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture