|Variable Component Type||Formal System|
|Theme||Basic (learn about themes)|
|Projects||SESMAD, Fiji fisheries|
|Question||What type of (formal) governance system is this?|
|Select Options||Management plan, System of laws, Treaty|
|Importance||This variable does not necessarily have theoretical (causal) importance. But it can be important to identify what types of governance systems tend to have what effects on different types of commons problems.|
"The management plan option specifies that there is a structure of rules which is derived from the formal legal system such as acts, statutes, and laws. The system of laws option indicates that the governance system in case is derived directly form the formal legal system such as acts, statutes, and laws. The treaty option specifies that a governance system in place is based on a formally concluded and ratified agreement among states."
|"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998||System of laws||This was a formal governance system based on a nation state, and thus is a system of laws.|
|ICCAT Governance System||Treaty||ICCAT was created as a convention among contracting parties.|
|"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012||System of laws||This is a system of laws governing forest management.|
|GMR governance system 1998-current||Management plan||System of Laws and Management plan. Coded together as one governance system.|
|Rhine Chemicals Convention||Treaty|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||Management plan||The Act is implemented through a management plan.|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||Management plan||The Act is implemented through a management plan.|
|Rhine Action Plan||Management plan||The overall goal of the program is to improve water quality by meeting the following objectives, by the year 2000 (Van den Brink et al. 1994; Van Dijk et al. 1995): 1) To create conditions that can support the return of higher trophic level species such as Salmon salar; 2) To protect the Rhine River as a source for drinking water; 3) To decrease the contamination of sediments, suspended matter, and the biota due to toxic compounds; 4) To meet water quality standards mandated in the North Sea Action Plan; 5) To follow the ‘Ecological Master Plan for the Rhine River’. This plan dictates two major ecosystem based goals: a) To restore the mainstream and its main tributaries, as habitats for migratory fish; and b) To improve and protect ecologically important areas of the Rhine River and the Rhine valley with an emphasis on increasing the biodiversity of indigenous flora and fauna. The initial years of the Rhine Action Program focused exclusively on water quality improvement. The Rhine states agreed on a target reduction of 50% of the pollution caused by priority compounds by the year 1995. In addition water quality targets were set for about 50 priority compounds based on the requirements for drinking water supply, the protection of aquatic life forms, and on human tolerance levels for fish consumption (Schulte, 1992). Rehabilitation efforts involved sewage and water treatment plants, decrease in point source discharges, reinforcing shorelines with large stones and planting of riparian vegetation, and use of seasonal chemical and biological concentration techniques to monitor water quality.|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||Management plan||A management plan was produced in 2008 by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The Monument is simply an agreement between the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the State of Hawaii, which form the co-trusteeship that manages the Monument.|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||Management plan||Management plan: The Act is established through the 25-year management plan|
|Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan||Management plan|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||System of laws||Focussed on the System of Laws - there is a formal management plan that includes components for each of the MPAs, and a management plan for the whole network, but there is contention over which MPAs are to be finally included in this plan (there are currently two versions - one included Kawe and one without).|
|The Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)||System of laws||Fisheries are managed based on a number of laws and ordinances (FICZ, 2005 ordinance, etc). The FICZ set up the jurisdiction for future laws and regulations.|
|Magnuson-Stevens Act||System of laws|
|Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management Plan||Management plan||Management plan has been implemented in the context of enabling legislation|
|Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan||Management plan|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||Management plan||The management plan contains the framework for how to manage the sanctuaries and divides tasks into program areas, and also provides the legal framework regulations to enforce Sanctuary laws.|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||System of laws||It is the creation act. I could not have found the actual management plan for this MPA.|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||System of laws||The first laws were established with the parks creation in 1973. The Svalbard Environmental Protection Act in 2001 further elaborates on these initial regulations.|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||Management plan||System of Laws and Management plan. Coded together as one governance system.|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||Management plan||Management plans have been designed and implemented under the appropriate legislation.|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||Management plan||2000-2005, and 2005-2012. The park is managed by the Director of National Parks in the Department of the Environment. The plan describes all activities allowed and the provisions in place to manage those activities.|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Management plan||Management plan has been implemented in the context of enabling legislation|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||Management plan|
|Cenderwasih governance system||System of laws||Coded as a system of laws from 2002 when the Park was formally designated (National Act No. 5 1990 (Ministry of Forestry)). A management plan came into effect in 2010-2029|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||Management plan|
|Indonesian Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture|
|California Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management Plan||Management plan||The MSFMP has been developed under the provisions set forth by California’s Marine Life Management Act (MLMA). The Federal government manages the marine resources and fishing activities of the United States (US) through the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA).|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||Management plan|
|New Zealand Quota Management System||System of laws||QMS was introduced with the Fisheries Amendment Act 1986. A series of Fisheries amendments have been introduced since, most notably the Fisheries Act of 1996. Management plans just being discussed now.|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.