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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionRegardless of how many rights are owned by each member, how much variation is there in the amounts that the members actually withdraw or emit?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Moderate, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceExcessive use right heterogeneity may be perceived as unfair by those members who have disproportionately few use rights. These members may be less likely to cooperate.
Definition

"This variable records how much variation there is in the extent of use rights granted to the members of this group. Use rights refer to the right to obtain products from a resource (e.g. catch fish, appropriate water) or to emit a given pollutant. Low heterogeneity indicates that most members have the same number of use rights. High heterogeneity indicates that a small subset of members have a disproportionate number or majority of the use rights."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researchers do not withdraw whales.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaModerate (2)Some concessions were much larger than others. However, all members of this group by definition had access to large extractive concessions
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" CommunitiesLow (1)Most individual members of this community shared the same (lack of) rights, and extracted small quantities from the forest.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneursModerate (2)some members of this group are very active as small-medium scale land users. Others are active primarily as local politicians who may benefit from certain kinds of activities, but are not leading those activities.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia does this group have rights? I don't think so
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities ? not clear how to answer this, as many members here do not have formal rights.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in IndonesiaModerate (2)All members of this group have some rights to extract resources, however the scale of these operations vary from large multinational companies with large holdings of concessions to companies with much more limited holdings, that do much less withdrawl.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HLow (1)
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firms 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)No-one has a right to extract corals
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerate (2)The fishing quota is relatively evenly distributed among operators in this fishery
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)No-one has a right to extract corals
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DLow (1)There is little heterogeneity in catches among community members.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMissingRights granting process varies by country. Most countries allocate rights to produce ODS first by considering the availability of substitutes for particular uses, and then use one or more additional methods to assign rights within sectors.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersModerate (2)Rights - through licenses and quota - are relatively evenly distributed in these fisheries (compared to for example Northern territory fisheries).
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersLow (1)Researchers do not use the habitat, except for occasional research projects, but permits are allocated for such uses.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersModerate (2)One company owns rights to approximately 70% of quota; while the other company owns rights to the remaining 30%
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)All fishers are subject to same rules within GMR
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational Users Recreational users do not withdraw this species.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)All fishers are subject to same rules and export of turtles is banned.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Resource is ultimately open access, but fish spawning areas are no-take. All the Bajao are subject to the same rules.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersLow (1)Destructive practices, such as coral mining are banned and this applies to all Bajau
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BLow (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)destructive practices are banned
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CModerate (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)All subject to same rules - although some differences across the different MPAs in terms of area of no take
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersLow (1)All fishers are subject to same rules with regard to turtles
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMissing
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AModerate (2)Coefficient of variation for income on an average day falls between 0.33 and 0.66.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)No light-mantled albatross have been caught as bycatch by any of the fishers; however the management plan sets a bycatch limit of 0.01 per 1000 hooks set
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorModerate (2)A variety of operators - from small-scale to high-end. Permits designed to favour small-scale tourism. All tourists and tourism operators subject to same rules within GMR.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersLow (1)Regulations (bag limits, fishing zones) apply equally to all rec fishers
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FHigh (3)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersModerate (2)Instead of being managed by quotas, the fishery is managed by the number of fishing days, fishing vessels, and gear regulations (NAFO 2012b). The majority of boats use similar gear – either two or three trawls (occasionally four trawls). Therefore, there are going to be difference in the efficiency of each boat, but not enormous differences in extraction.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersLow (1)All artisanal fishers with the license can harvest the resource. There seem to be no differentiation.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersModerate (2)Quotas are allocated according to previous fishing history. Each Statutory Fishing Rights entitles the holder to receive an equal portion of the TAC set by AFMA for the current period.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EModerate (2)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersLow (1)All fishers excluded from no-take zones. Trawlers also excluded from other zones but rules are relatively evenly applied.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)All fishers subject to same rules
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersLow (1)All fishers subject to same rules
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GLow (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenHigh (3)Quotas are allocated according to previous fishing history. Thus, some fishermen are not allocated any quota for certain fisheries, and portfolios vary widely by fisherman and by gear and target grounds. Various gear types determine quantity of catch.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenLow (1)Catch about the same, at least capacity to catch same, no restrictions.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersModerate (2)Depends on quota allocation. 7 companies. No one can have more than 45%.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersLow (1)
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersLow (1)Quota divided (in 2016 by 7 companies) - lowest % at 4%, highest at 18%, average about 14% - mostly the same
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersLow (1)