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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDoes the scale of this governance system match the scale of the commons that it is governing?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceMismatches between the spatial extent of the governance system and the spatial extent of the commons can create severe governance challenges, particularly when the scale of the commons spreads across multiple governance jurisdictions. In these circumstances no one governance system has the capability to control spatial externalities between systems. See Cumming, Cumming & Redman (2006) for an excellent review of these problems.
Definition

Spatial mismatches occur when the spatial scales of management and the spatial scales of ecosystem processes do not align appropriately (Cumming et al. 2006). For example, if a local community is attempting to manage a highly migratory species by focusing on only a very small portion of its range, there is a mismatch in the scale of management and the species' range.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Decentralization and leakageNo

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005NoGroupers are distributed throughout the caribbean and other parts of the Atlantic.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"New Order" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1965-1998YesThe scale of the governance system is the entire archipelago of Indonesia. Arguably, this contains multiple smaller forest commons, which could be seen as a scale mismatch (i.e. each smaller forest area could have a separate governance system), but we think it makes more sense to think of the forest as the entire archipelago's forest as well.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernance"Reformasi" Indonesian Forest Governance System, 1998-2012YesThe scale of governance - the entire country divided into smaller administrative units - can be conceptualized as being the same as the forest area.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceMontreal ProtocolYes
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemNoEastern ABFT are known to cross the 45th meridian, which is used to formally distinguish between the Eastern and Western stock.
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemNoEastern ABFT are known to cross the 45th meridian, which is used to formally distinguish between the Eastern and Western stock.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Governance SystemMissing
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceICCAT Governance SystemNoEastern ABFT are known to cross the 45th meridian which marks the formal governance boundary.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999YesThe GBRMP encompasses all of the Great Barrier Reef. However, land-based and other external influences still affect the Reef
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine Chemicals ConventionYes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentYesThe GBRMP encompasses all of the Great Barrier Reef. However, land-based and other external influences still affect the Reef
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentYesScale matching is improved compared to 1975-1999 due to the representative areas programme.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999Yes
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentYesMPA aligns with government boundaries but includes the entire coral reef structure
Montreal ProtocolGovernancePre-Montreal Protocol Ozone GovernanceNoNational-level regulations do not correspond to the global nature of the problem
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentYesNo-take zones aim to match up with locations for spawning
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi National Park 2008-currentNoManagement actors monitor nesting beaches but access is not prohibited. No-take zones do not cover turtle migration routes as they are very small. Bans on harvesting of turtles are only enforced in the MPA but not beyond. Enforcement of these bans appears to be relatively lax within the MPA (see Clifton 2013)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanYesAlthough toothfish are capable of migrating outside of the areas governed by the toothfish fishery management plan; evidence suggests that the vast majority of tagged fish remain within 10 nautical miles of where they were initially captured.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan NoWhile the entirety of the breeding ground is protected by the nature reserve; royal penguins are resident for 7 months of the year and frequently forage far outside of the nature reserve (and marine park)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006YesEncompass a large range for a wide range of fish and their various life stages. All coral reefs and surrounding areas are included in the MPA, which is remote and surrounded by deep water. However, main islands of Hawaii are not included, although there is considerable distance between the MPA and these islands.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanNoLight mantled albatross are spread throughout the circumpolar region.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Governance SystemMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan NoLight mantled albatross, including those that nest on Macquarie Island are found throughout the circumpolar region. The Macquarie Island Nature Reserve management plan protects breeding sites as well as some potential foraging areas.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012NoThere are limited restrictions in the GABMP. Australian Sea Lions have been found to forage up to 75km offshore and individuals risk becoming bycatch in demersal gill nets when foraging in parts of the GABMP where fishing is permitted (Hamer et al. 2011)
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Governance System 
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Governance SystemMissing
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006YesLobsters don't move very far and all near-shore areas are protected.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Governance SystemMissing
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemYesNetowrk of MPAs across the region encompassing many coral reef areas
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Governance SystemMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentNosharks are wide-ranging species, satellite tracking has found that hammerheads spend significant periods outside the protected waters of the GMR. Industrial fishers in international waters pose threats to sharks.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemYesNesting beaches protected and taking of turtles are banned through the waters of Raja Ampat through shark sanctuary - although, not protected outside of these waters
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemYesMany reef area are protected and some of the MPAs are completely no-take
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanYesThe Council oversees the entire Pacific, while California focuses on state waters.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActYesAlthough the Nature Reserves do not encompass all polar bear habitat, they do encompass many of the important regions on Svalbard (and other the Hopen Reserve encompasses another important area). The governance system includes regulations for the main human activities around Svalbard.
Falkland Islands squidGovernanceThe Falkland Islands Government (FIG) Fisheries Department’s Falklands Interim Conservation and Management Zone (FICZ)YesLolgio gahi are most frequently found in the area managed by the Falkland Islands. Key life stages are protected, and areas that are outside the FIG jurisdiction but within L. gahi distribution are less abundant waters.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012NoSouthern right whales are migratory - the scale of the Management Plans govern the area of the GABMP (CW) which includes important calving habitat for the southern right whale, but whales are not generally protected outside of this area
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006NoSomewhat - majority of the population are resident within the NWHI (distinct genetic sub-population) but many go to main Hawaiian islands where there are exposed to more threats (by-catch, pollution etc). Some go further afield. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/16285718/0
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActYesRegulations are determined for the Svalbard Fisheries Protection Zone in conjunction with the Barents Sea, which is appropriate because it is considered one stock.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System YesThe governance system encompasses a much larger area than is occupied by the rocky shores habitat, but is appropriate since multiple habitats influence each other.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNoLight mantled albatross, including populations that nest on Macquarie Island are spread throughout the circumpolar region
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNoLight Mantled Albatross have a circumpolar distribution.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentNoTurtles are migratory species and not protected outside of the GMR
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemYesIt's a large area encompassing a wide variety of habitats but no take areas are small.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012NoThe scale of the Management Plans governs the area of the GABMP (CW) which includes habitat for juvenile southern bluefine tuna but the tuna migrate outside of this governance system. The MPA was designed before surveys of the benthic area were conducted but was designed to capture a range of habitat types.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanNoWhile the Marine Reserve Management Plan protects King Penguin nesting sites, it does not fully protect their foraging grounds, which extends into the French EEZ (around Kerguelen) and into the high seas (see e.g. Meyer et al. 2000).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentYesThe 2004 re-zoning plan protects the most important nesting areas, along with 5-10km of the surrounding ocean, in addition to 20% of the main foraging areas. Since turtles show strong site fidelity to nesting areas, protecting important nesting sites therefore protects a critical stage of the turtle’s life cycle. As a migratory species, the GBR does not encompass the entire range of green turtles, but it does protect a substantial amount of important habitat. Dobbs (2007) notes that authorities do not know of any specific migration pathways, so these were not included in the zoning analysis.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanNoWhile the management plan provide land-based protection (for potential nesting sites) for Light Mantled Albatross, only a small portion of their foraging range is protected in the HIMI marine reserve. As a highly migratory bird species with a circumpolar distribution, their migratory range and foraging grounds extend into the French EEZ (and Kerguelen Island), the high seas and beyond.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNoMajor toothfish grounds are located outside of the MPA
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanNoAlthough breeding habitat is fully protected; Royal penguins often travel outside of Macquarie Island and the Marine reserve to forage.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System NoThe Sanctuaries can regulate in sanctuary waters, the Coast Guard and NMFS can regulate in federal waters, but the commons, the humpback whale, migrates much farther than this governance system.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower MPA Act 2005NoApproximately 50% of coral reefs in this region are in no entry/take zones.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan NoPatagonian toothfish occur within the Nature Reserve as the Aurora Trough fishing ground is just outside the boundary of the Nature reserve; However, they extend well beyond the boundaries of the nature reserve.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentYesGMR includes the shallow coastal waters surrounding the Galapagos archipelago where sea cucmbers reside. The fishery is now closed, but when it was open there was a mismatch and fishing was allowed in areas with high densities of sea cucumber
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActNoBreeding grounds are protected, but foraging grounds are not
California squidGovernanceCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife Market Squid Fishery Management PlanNoSquid migrate outside state waters, in federal waters, go to Oregon and Washington, and go to Mexico and Canada.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih governance systemYesIt's a large area encompassing a wide variety of habitats but no take areas are small.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Quota Management SystemYesGovernance limited to EEZ and New Zealand. N. gouldi goes to Australia, but this larger distribution does not play a role. N. sloanii is only in New Zealand.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Governance SystemMissing
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Governance SystemMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanNoThere is increasing evidence that HIMI toothfish are part of a larger Kerguelen Plateau/South Indian Ocean population and the MPA only protects a small proportion of areas important for toothfish life history (e.g., some juveniles areas).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceHeard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNoIncreasing evidence suggests that HIMI toothfish are part of a larger Kerguelen Plateau/South Indian Ocean population. This is supported by genetics (Appleyard et al. 2002, Appleyard et al. 2004), parasite fauna (see e.g., Brickle et al. 2005) and tag recapture studies (Williams et al. 2002; Duhamel and Welsford 2011).