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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow secure are the rights that this commons user group has with respect to this environmental commons?
Select Options1 Low, 2 Medium, 3 High
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceProperty security is sometimes mentioned in the theory of the tragedy of the commons, insofar as the absence of such security is predicted to lead to resource degradation. Inversely, the presence of property right security, most often as security of land tenure, is argued to be an important enabling condition to positive social and ecological outcomes in developing-world contexts (e.g. see http://usaidlandtenure.net/).
Definition

Property right security refers to how clearly defined the rights of a commons using actor group are, and the extent to which these rights are respected by any other actors that might threaten the stream of benefits that are produced by those rights. 

High : High property security means that there is a strong common understanding of what aspects of a commons are owned, and that the rules associated with these rights are complied with.

Low: Low property security means that there is either a very poor common understanding of what aspects of a commons are owned, or that despite this understanding, the rules associated with these rights are not complied with.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
The tragedy of the open-access commonsLow
Private property rights and conservationHigh
Payment for ecosystem services (PES)High

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersHigh (3)Multinational fishery
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism 
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenHigh (3)The permit and regulation system is very clear to what species, locations, depths, and gears are allowed by the fishermen.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMissing
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Their right to a fraction of quotas are secure; although quota could be set to zero.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersHigh (3)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Permits are clear in rights, as well as IRB standards for live-animal research.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersMedium (2)The permit and regulation system is very clear to what species, locations, depths, and gears are allowed by the fishermen. Although the TAC and quota can change from year to year.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersHigh (3)The Sanctuary and international and national laws regarding human contact with whales are clear and well enforced, and while often times encounters occur beyond enforcement visibility, it is well known what the rules regarding human interaction with whales are.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)It is possible that if light mantled albatross become increasingly threatened that more stringent bycatch limits could be imposed. For some species the Macquarie Island fishery would be closed if a single bird is caught in bycatch.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorMedium (2)Permits need to be renewed each year (but it is unlikely it would not be re-issued) http://www.galapagospark.org/nophprg.php?page=turismo_patentes
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenLow (1)Permit required to fish. But limits for landing and size were not adhered to, hence collapse of fishery.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMissing
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersHigh (3)They are currently codified in the law that only artisanal fishers have access to this commons.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersHigh (3)Permits are clear in rights, as well as IRB standards for live-animal research.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersHigh (3)Local marine tenure. Although this has been reported to have felt to have decreased, but no reason why given in the report (WWF 2015)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersHigh (3)Their right to a fraction of quotas are secure; although quota could be set to zero.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Tourism 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersHigh (3)Local marine tenure. Although this has been reported to have felt to have decreased, but no reason why given in the report (WWF 2015)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersMissing
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersHigh (3)It is very clear to users who is a user, how much quota they are allowed to catch, and there are mechanisms to discuss disputes if any arise. The Director of Fisheries however can remove a company from the eligibility register who then therefore is forced to sell its rights to more profitable companies.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersHigh (3)Very secure, as this certainty was one of the primary reasons and outcomes of the QMS.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenHigh (3)Clearly understood what is accessible and what is not (and where).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersMedium (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersMedium (2)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersMedium (2)Regulatory changes can affect the security of fisher rights.