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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeOutcomes (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow has the well-being of this commons user group changed during the time period identified in this interaction?
Select Options1 Worsened, 2 Remained the same, 3 Improved
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThe well-being of commons user groups is one of the primary social outcomes in the sesmad database. A system that preserves a commons at the expense of the well-being of the commons users is generally seen as being less effective.
Definition

Well-being here is defined broadly as the economic and cultural well-being of the commons user group, much of which is tied to the state of a commons upon which it depends. This could have different dimensions for different user groups, e.g. for commercial fishers this could be economic values, and for subsistence users this could be an indicator of poverty.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Local livelihood and protected areasImproved
Critique of fortress conservationWorsened

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersImproved (3)More secure traditional rights and empowerment to manage local natural resources. Probably improved food security.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersWorsened (1)Overall catches have declined from 83 ktons in 2000 to 18 ktons in 2012 partly due to reduced market prices for shrimp products. Norway accounts for 75-92% of the landings.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenWorsened (1)Coded as worsened as this time period includes peak fishery to fishery collapse to fishery closure and movement of fishers into tourism sector - possibly stable now, but there have been major transitions which must have negatively impacted many livelihoods
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersImproved (3)More secure traditional rights and empowerment to manage local natural resources. Probably improved food security.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersImproved (3)In terms of economic improvements, the well-being of commercial fishermen has improved - mainly linked to the increasing price of Southern bluefin tuna, and not the Australian Sea Lion. in 2011–12 (at the end of this snap-shot) the value of farmed southern bluefin tuna production rose by 31% ($36 million) to $150 million. This followed a 22% increase in production volume and a 7% increase in the average unit value of southern bluefin tuna (Australian Fisheries Statistics 2012)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRemained the same (2)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersWorsened (1)From an interview with Chui-Ling Tam: "There have been changes in social customs and relations within the Bajau: before when people experienced the effects of reduced fishing output they would be happy to lend money to friends and family, but now they are less willing to share as they are not as confident that it will be able to be repaid. This uncertainty is affecting how the Bajau deal and interact with each other, but this change is really hard to document. The concept of freedom is also extremely important to the Bajau – and the Bajau report that the marine park makes them feel less free – altering their customs and identity."
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismImproved (3)Tourism has increased on Svalbard during this time period - the number of people landing from cruise ships has more than doubled over the last 10 years (Hagen et al. 2012).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersImproved (3)Tourism has increased both in amount of people coming to the Central California area and the amount of money spent on recreational activities in the area.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenWorsened (1)Many groundfish fishermen are exiting the fishery because they can no longer make a living focusing on fishing, though they would like to be able to do so. Regulations have restricted fishermen much more in their activity, making their activities more difficult to do.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRemained the same (2)
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersImproved (3)In terms of economic improvements, in 2011–12 (at the end of this snap-shot) the value of farmed southern bluefin tuna production rose by 31% ($36 million) to $150 million. This followed a 22% increase in production volume and a 7% increase in the average unit value of southern bluefin tuna (Australian Fisheries Statistics 2012)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersImproved (3)The Sanctuary has provided a unique opportunity for research, particularly long-term research, as well as funding opportunities for researchers.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorImproved (3)Tourism has increased in the Galapagos - both in number and monetary value so coded as improved
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRemained the same (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersImproved (3)More secure traditional rights and empowerment to manage local natural resources. Probably improved food security with pigs as alternate protein source.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersWorsened (1)From an interview with Chui-Ling Tam: "There have been changes in social customs and relations within the Bajao: before when people experienced the effects of reduced fishing output they would be happy to lend money to friends and family, but now they are less willing to share as they are not as confident that it will be able to be repaid. This uncertainty is affecting how the Bajao deal and interact with each other, but this change is really hard to document. The concept of freedom is also extremely important to the Bajo – and the Bajao report that the marine park makes them feel less free – altering their customs and identity."
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersImproved (3)In terms of economic improvements, the well-being of commercial fishermen has improved - mainly linked to the increasing price of Southern bluefin tuna, and not the Australian Sea Lion. in 2011–12 (at the end of this snap-shot) the value of farmed southern bluefin tuna production rose by 31% ($36 million) to $150 million. This followed a 22% increase in production volume and a 7% increase in the average unit value of southern bluefin tuna (Australian Fisheries Statistics 2012)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersImproved (3)The Sanctuary has provided a unique opportunity for research, particularly long-term research, as well as funding opportunities for researchers.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersWorsened (1)From an interview with Chui-Ling Tam: "There have been changes in social customs and relations within the Bajau: before when people experienced the effects of reduced fishing output they would be happy to lend money to friends and family, but now they are less willing to share as they are not as confident that it will be able to be repaid. This uncertainty is affecting how the Bajau deal and interact with each other, but this change is really hard to document. The concept of freedom is also extremely important to the Bajau – and the Bajau report that the marine park makes them feel less free – altering their customs and identity."
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersRemained the same (2)Mixed findings on indicators of well-being: tenure decreased; food security increased; material assets increased; place attachement decreased (WWF 2015) - so coded as remained the same.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismImproved (3)Tourism has increased on Svalbard during this time period - the number of people landing from cruise ships has more than doubled over the last 10 years (Hagen et al. 2012).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersRemained the same (2)Impacted by zoning plans which protect corals as well as fish. However it is restricted access to fish that has the greatest impact on fisher wellbeing. These impacts are therefore recorded in another interaction table
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersRemained the same (2)Mixed findings on indicators of well-being: tenure decreased; food security increased; material assets increased; place attachement decreased (WWF 2015) - so coded as remained the same.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersImproved (3)The individual that values exploration and values personal fishing in their own time and own way and explore, this went away. It went from exploration to corporate. For the ordinary participant, it led to more comfort and certainty, less risk, income certainty, and standard working conditions
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenRemained the same (2)Catch limit has not changed fishing activity much. Other broader scale factors have put stress on system (especially retainment). Ex-vessel revenue has substantially increased throughout the last decade.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismImproved (3)Tourism has increased in Raja Ampat: 3,855 tourist in 2010, to 11,130 in 2013 (http://www.thebalitimes.com/2014/08/25/raja-ampat-to-see-more-tourists/)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRemained the same (2)Fishing levels and management measures have remained similar throughout the snapshot.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersRemained the same (2)Recreational fishers are impacted by the zoning plans, which were implemented to protect both fish and corals (as well as biodiversity in general). It is the lack of access to fish rather than corals that impacted their wellbeing so this is recorded in other interaction tables.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersWorsened (1)The governance system does not impact the livelihoods of recreational fishers, however declining access and declining participation of recreational fishers has arguably impacts some aspects of wellbeing, like life-style, relaxation, enjoyment.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersWorsened (1)Despite improvements to fish stocks those that remain in fisheries suggest that their profits have fallen over the past ten years.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersImproved (3)It appears the ITQ system has increased the well-being of fishermen (as its objective). Human rights have been improved, including safety concerns which are now embedded in license agreements.