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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeText
Variable Component TypeGovernance System
Variable KindComponent
ThemeBiophysical (learn about themes)
QuestionDoes the MPA encompass area(s) that is considered part of a key life history stage of the migratory species being coded in this case (e.g., breeding, foraging, etc)?
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ImportanceMigratory species are exposed to many different threats during the different stages of their life cycle, and their effects are often cumulative. Benefits from MPAs to migratory species are likely to be most effective when they target protection in places where species spend particularly vulnerable life history phases such as spawning areas, juvenile habitats or migration routes (Maxwell & Morgan 2012).

For the migratory species being coded in this case, detail any of their life history stages (any areas that are required for the species to survive and thrive), e.g. breeding, spawning, foraging, nursery/juvenile habitat, or migration routes, protected in this MPA

SectorsMarine protected areas

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Component Usages

ComponentValue UsedExplanation
GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999tBreeding and foraging grounds for turtles, dugong, shark
GBR Marine Park Act 2004-currenttIt covers breeding and foraging grounds for turtles, dugong and shark
Raja Ampat Governance System nesting and foraging populations of green and hawksbill turtles. A total of 17 species of marine mammals including 9 whale species, 7 dolphin species and dugong have been recorded indicating that Raja Ampat is likely to be an important migratory pathway, feeding and/or breeding ground for these species. TNC Factsheet : The Raja Ampat Islands. 2011
Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System tYes. Within the Gulf of the Farllones NMS, many birds and mammals breed, feed, and haul out within the oceanic and estuarine systems. 54 species of birds use the Sanctuary to breed (GFNMS FMP, 2008). The Farallon Islands sustain the largest sea bird breeding colony south of Alaska and contains 30 percent of California's nesting sea birds (CFWS, 2015). The Gulf of the Farallones NMS provides breeding and/or feeding grounds for 26 endangered or threatened species, 36 marine mammal species, e.g. blue, gray, and humpback whales, harbor seals, elephant seals, Pacific white-sided dolphins, and the threatened Steller sea lions, more than 400,000 breeding seabirds, and one of the most significant white shark populations on the planet (GFNMS FMP, 2008; National Ocean Service, 2015). California's largest breeding population of harbor seals, 1/5th of the entire state's population, depends on the GFNMS for food (GFNMS FMP, 2008). The California sea lion, Steller sea lion, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal breed in the Monterey Bay NMS (Duffy 2014). The northern fur seal and Guadalupe fur seal feed in the Monterey Bay NMS (Duffy 2014). This area is excellent for migrating mammals, since it is along a major current from the feeding areas in the productive Arctic to the warm breeding areas in the tropics. Salmon and steelhead fish species migrate to and spawn in the MBNMS (MBNMS FMP, 2008). Elkhorn Slough, which is part of the MBNMS, is particularly important for migrating birds in the MBNMS, including Brown Pelicans, Heermann's Gulls, Elegant Terns, Surf scoters, Greater scaup, Bufflehead, Black-bellied and Semipalmated Plovers, Willet, Marbled Godwit, Long-billed Curlew, Western & Least Sandpipers, Dunlin, Ruddy Turnstone and Red Knot (Roberson, 2012). Black-footed Albatrosses feed at the Cordell Bank NMS and Cassin's Auklets breed at Cordell Bank, while Sooty Shearwaters migrate through the CBNMS, and Ashy Stormpetrels nest on the Southeast Farallon Island (National Ocean Service, 2015; CBNMS FMP, 2008). 26 marine mammals (resident and migratory) marine mammals have been observed in the CBNMS. Gray whales migrate through the CBNMS waters, and Pacific humpback whales and blue whales feed during the summer months in the Sanctuary (CBNMS FMP, 2008). Migratory pelagic fish species in the three sanctuaries include northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetric us), albacore (Thunnus alalunga) (GFNMS FMP, 2008). Grey whales and humpback whales feed and migrate in all 3 sanctuaries.
Svalbard Environmental Protection ActBreedingIn Svalbard the kittiwake is a common breeding species in all parts of the archipelago. It can be observed in all coastal areas as well as at sea, even in ice-filled waters. The largest colonies are found on Bjørnøya and Hopen. About 215 colonies are known in Svalbard. The coastal regions near freshwater inputs and glaciers are important for foraging for Beluga (Lyderson et al 2001)
Seaflower MPA Act 2005MissingNO DATA
Galapagos Governance System 1998-currentGreen turtle nesting and foraging
Macquarie Island Marine Park Management PlanThe MPA and Nature Reserve are critical as a breeding ground for a number of migratory seabirds such as the Wandering and Light-mantled albatross, and penguins such as the Royal Penguin.The MPA and Nature Reserve are critical as a breeding ground for a number of migratory seabirds such as the Wandering and Light-mantled albatross, and penguins such as the Royal Penguin.
GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012Breeding and foragingProvides undisturbed calving habitat for the southern right whale and foraging habitat for other migratory cetaceans, southern bluefin tuna, and birds
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management PlanYes- foraging area for many seabirds, including King Penguins and light-mantled albatross.The MPA includes foraging areas for flying seabirds, including migratory albatross.
Cenderwasih governance systemNesting beaches for Green TurtleNesting habitat for the green and hawksbill turtle, and feeding area for leatherback and olive ridley turtle (Mangubhai, Erdmann et al. 2012)
Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in BrazilNot Applicable
Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA divingtHabitat for many coral reef ecosystems, including substantial turtle breeding area.
Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa RicaMissing
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management PlanNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park 2008-currentYes - turtle nesting beaches100% of turtle nesting sites protected
NWHI Monument Act 2006Green Turtle - nesting, foraging, basking groundsGreen turtles migrate widely throughout the Pacific Ocean and the NWHI is an area where the species rest, forage and breed. Over 90% of nesting occurs at the French Frigate shoals (Balazs, 1992).