|Variable Component Type||Governance System|
|Theme||Biophysical (learn about themes)|
|Question||Does the MPA encompass area(s) that is considered part of a key life history stage of the migratory species being coded in this case (e.g., breeding, foraging, etc)?|
|Importance||Migratory species are exposed to many different threats during the different stages of their life cycle, and their effects are often cumulative. Benefits from MPAs to migratory species are likely to be most effective when they target protection in places where species spend particularly vulnerable life history phases such as spawning areas, juvenile habitats or migration routes (Maxwell & Morgan 2012).|
For the migratory species being coded in this case, detail any of their life history stages (any areas that are required for the species to survive and thrive), e.g. breeding, spawning, foraging, nursery/juvenile habitat, or migration routes, protected in this MPA
|Sectors||Marine protected areas|
|GBR Marine Park Act 2004-current||t||It covers breeding and foraging grounds for turtles, dugong and shark|
|Wakatobi National Park 2008-current||Yes - turtle nesting beaches||100% of turtle nesting sites protected|
|Joint Sanctuary Management Governance System||t||Yes. Within the Gulf of the Farllones NMS, many birds and mammals breed, feed, and haul out within the oceanic and estuarine systems. 54 species of birds use the Sanctuary to breed (GFNMS FMP, 2008). The Farallon Islands sustain the largest sea bird breeding colony south of Alaska and contains 30 percent of California's nesting sea birds (CFWS, 2015). The Gulf of the Farallones NMS provides breeding and/or feeding grounds for 26 endangered or threatened species, 36 marine mammal species, e.g. blue, gray, and humpback whales, harbor seals, elephant seals, Pacific white-sided dolphins, and the threatened Steller sea lions, more than 400,000 breeding seabirds, and one of the most significant white shark populations on the planet (GFNMS FMP, 2008; National Ocean Service, 2015). California's largest breeding population of harbor seals, 1/5th of the entire state's population, depends on the GFNMS for food (GFNMS FMP, 2008). The California sea lion, Steller sea lion, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal breed in the Monterey Bay NMS (Duffy 2014). The northern fur seal and Guadalupe fur seal feed in the Monterey Bay NMS (Duffy 2014). This area is excellent for migrating mammals, since it is along a major current from the feeding areas in the productive Arctic to the warm breeding areas in the tropics. Salmon and steelhead fish species migrate to and spawn in the MBNMS (MBNMS FMP, 2008). Elkhorn Slough, which is part of the MBNMS, is particularly important for migrating birds in the MBNMS, including Brown Pelicans, Heermann's Gulls, Elegant Terns, Surf scoters, Greater scaup, Bufflehead, Black-bellied and Semipalmated Plovers, Willet, Marbled Godwit, Long-billed Curlew, Western & Least Sandpipers, Dunlin, Ruddy Turnstone and Red Knot (Roberson, 2012). Black-footed Albatrosses feed at the Cordell Bank NMS and Cassin's Auklets breed at Cordell Bank, while Sooty Shearwaters migrate through the CBNMS, and Ashy Stormpetrels nest on the Southeast Farallon Island (National Ocean Service, 2015; CBNMS FMP, 2008). 26 marine mammals (resident and migratory) marine mammals have been observed in the CBNMS. Gray whales migrate through the CBNMS waters, and Pacific humpback whales and blue whales feed during the summer months in the Sanctuary (CBNMS FMP, 2008). Migratory pelagic fish species in the three sanctuaries include northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetric us), albacore (Thunnus alalunga) (GFNMS FMP, 2008). Grey whales and humpback whales feed and migrate in all 3 sanctuaries.|
|Seaflower MPA Act 2005||Missing||NO DATA|
|Svalbard Environmental Protection Act||Breeding||In Svalbard the kittiwake is a common breeding species in all parts of the archipelago. It can be observed in all coastal areas as well as at sea, even in ice-filled waters. The largest colonies are found on Bjørnøya and Hopen. About 215 colonies are known in Svalbard. The coastal regions near freshwater inputs and glaciers are important for foraging for Beluga (Lyderson et al 2001)|
|GBR Marine Park Act 1975-1999||t||Breeding and foraging grounds for turtles, dugong, shark|
|Galapagos Governance System 1998-current||Green turtle nesting and foraging|
|Macquarie Island Marine Park Management Plan||The MPA and Nature Reserve are critical as a breeding ground for a number of migratory seabirds such as the Wandering and Light-mantled albatross, and penguins such as the Royal Penguin.||The MPA and Nature Reserve are critical as a breeding ground for a number of migratory seabirds such as the Wandering and Light-mantled albatross, and penguins such as the Royal Penguin.|
|Raja Ampat Governance System||nesting and foraging populations of green and hawksbill turtles. A total of 17 species of marine mammals including 9 whale species, 7 dolphin species and dugong have been recorded indicating that Raja Ampat is likely to be an important migratory pathway, feeding and/or breeding ground for these species. TNC Factsheet : The Raja Ampat Islands. 2011|
|GABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Plan of Management 2000 - 2005 and Management Plan 2005 - 2012||Breeding and foraging||Provides undisturbed calving habitat for the southern right whale and foraging habitat for other migratory cetaceans, southern bluefin tuna, and birds|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands Fishery Management Plan||Not Applicable|
|Heard and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan||Yes- foraging area for many seabirds, including King Penguins and light-mantled albatross.||The MPA includes foraging areas for flying seabirds, including migratory albatross.|
|Cenderwasih governance system||Nesting beaches for Green Turtle||Nesting habitat for the green and hawksbill turtle, and feeding area for leatherback and olive ridley turtle (Mangubhai, Erdmann et al. 2012)|
|NWHI Monument Act 2006||Green Turtle - nesting, foraging, basking grounds||Green turtles migrate widely throughout the Pacific Ocean and the NWHI is an area where the species rest, forage and breed. Over 90% of nesting occurs at the French Frigate shoals (Balazs, 1992).|
|Self.organized rules and norms for SCUBA diving||t||Habitat for many coral reef ecosystems, including substantial turtle breeding area.|
|Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (AMPRs) Costa Rica||Missing|
|Caeté-Taperaçú Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Brazil||Not Applicable|
Basic:A basic variable describes essential and basic background information for a component.
Biophysical:Biophysical variables describe just that: important biophysical properties, largely of environmental commons, that are not captured by a more specific theme.
Causation:A variable with this theme describes issues of causality, which is a complex subject. Most basically this theme is associated with variables that describe different types of causation and different types of causes of environmental problems.
Context:contextual variable relates the component with which it associated to the social and/or ecological setting of a particular interaction and/or case.
Ecosystem services:Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or describe the provision of important ecosystem services by a natural resource.
Enforcement:Enforcement involves several different processes, including monitoring for violations of rules, sanctioning violators, and conflict resolution mechanisms involved in this process. Variables that relate to any of these processes should be attached to this theme.
External:Variables with this theme relate a component to processes external to the case with which the component is associated.
Heterogeneity:Variables with this theme describe important ways in which the member of an actor group differ from each other.
Incentives: This theme is associated with variables that are not directly related to institutions and rules, but which still play a role in affecting the incentives that commons users have to ameliorate or exacerbate the commons they use.
Institutional-biophysical linkage:This is a sub-theme of the institutions theme, and describes those variables that ask about the relationship between a set of institutions and a biophysical aspect of a commons.
Institutions:Variables with this theme describe the social institutions (rules, property rights) that are used to organize and direct human behavior. It does not include monitoring and enforcement of these institutions, as these are associated with the Enforcement theme.
Knowledge and uncertainty:Variables with this theme describe levels of knowledge that actor groups have regarding a commons, as well as factors that affect how much uncertainty there is in the status and dynamics of that commons.
Leadership:Leaders play an important role in commons management, most traditionally by providing for public goods needed to organize commons users. But there are other possible roles, and variables associated with this theme can relate to any role that a leader might play in an interaction.
Outcomes:This theme is attached to variables that deal with any outcomes that are produced by the actions of relevant actors in an interaction.
Resource renewability:Variables associated with this theme deal with the ability of a natural resource to be highly productive and renewable.
Social capital:Social capital captures the processes that enable the members of an actor group to work effectively together. Variables associated with this theme describe factors that affect or in some way express the level of social capital among members of a group.
Spatial:Variables associated with the Spatial theme describe important spatial patterns or dynamics, such as the spatial heterogeneity of a commons, or whether or not a user group resides within a particular commons.
Technology:This theme is attached to variables that consider the role that technology and infrastructure have in affecting commons outcomes.