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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeEnvironmental Common
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeBiophysical (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionGiven the current state of the system, how ecologically resilient is this commons to the threats that it can be expected to face?
Select Options1 Poorly resilient, 2 Moderately resilient, 3 Highly resilient
Unit
Role
Importance
Definition
Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Modularity and general resilienceModerately or highly resilient
Openness and general resilienceLow resilience
Gilded trapsPoorly resilient
Metric diversity, biodiversity loss and resiliencePoorly resilient
Feedbacks and general resilienceModerately or highly resilient
Social memory and general resilienceModerately to highly resilient
Social diversity and general resilienceModerate to high resilience
Conditions for general resilienceModerate to Highly Resilient
Ecological memory, Reserves and General ResilienceModerately to Highly resilient

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanModerately resilient (2)The Macquarie Island Patagonian toothfish stock appears to be capable of sustainably supporting a small fishery
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenModerately resilient (2)With trawling and spatial fishing limitations, groundfish habitat is more resilient than has been in the past. But some species e.g. Dover sole, thornyhead, and sablefish prefer softer substrates which are much more resilient to threats than harder substrates with boulders, corals, and sponges (SeafoodWatch, 2014). Habitat is not very resilient to trawling.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersModerately resilient (2)While these species are slow maturing and slow growing, they are considered fairly resilient (IUCN Redlist).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberPoorly resilient (1)Depleted fishery. IUCN Red List: Endangered http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/180373/0
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtlePoorly resilient (1)Not a large population of green turtles in WNP and given that they are slow to reproduce and easily exploited - particularly through harvesting of eggs - coded as not resilient. Turtles are also temperature-dependent sex determined, and there are concerns that increases in global temperatures could skew sex-ratios.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersPoorly resilient (1)Green turtles are slow to reporduce and easily exploited - particularly through harvesting of eggs. Turtles are also temperature-dependent sex determined, and there are concerns that increases in gloabl temperatures could skew sex-ratios.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersModerately resilient (2)Raja Ampat regularly expereinces wide temperature variations and so coral tends to recover quickly from bleaching events ('pre-adapted to climate change). However, many of the future threats are anticipated to come from uncontrolled land-based actvities, e.g. logging/mining/road building, so coded as moderately resilient. (Mangubhai, 2012. Agostini, 2011).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Co-Trusteeship Highly resilient (3)High resilient to threats expected to face - area is currently no take. Because there are different trophic levels involved in this commons group it is highly resilient to primary and secondary threats, such as over fishing and climate change, and takes a while for levels to become unstable and change. The location of the NWHI is also highly remote and has lower levels of anthropological disturbances and biophysical disturbances compared to the MHI where trophic levels are affected on a greater scale. Friedlander & DeMartini, 2002; Polovina et al., 2008
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Monument Act 2006Moderately resilient (2)Population fairly high and no direct threats. Moderately resilient and vulnerable to over-exploitation
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Moderately resilient (2)Periods of extensive harvesting of royal penguin for their oil did not significantly reduce stocks giving some indication of their resilience to moderate levels of harvesting.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtlePoorly resilient (1)Green turtles are slow to reporduce and easily exploited - particularly through harvesting of eggs. Turtles are also temperature-dependent sex determined, and there are concerns that increases in gloabl temperatures could skew sex-ratios.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionPoorly resilient (1)Populations are declining, and it is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinModerately resilient (2)Evidence suggests that period of harvesting did not have a significant impact on the Royal Penguin population.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Moderately resilient (2)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleModerately resilient (2)While these species are slow maturing and slow growing, they are considered fairly resilient (IUCN Redlist).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi managersModerately resilient (2)The coral reefs of the WNP are considered to be highly resilient: " Mass coral bleaching hit Wakatobi National Park more than 4 times since 1998. The last coral bleaching showed the resilience level of Wakatobi National Park was high. After 3 month from coral bleaching, the coral reef ecosystem was back to normal condition." http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/assessing-ecological-resilience-of-indonesian-coral-reefs-1410-5217-14-318.pdf However, coded as moderately resilient because coral reefs may be more susceptible to regime shifts than other ecosystems
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Toothfish Fishery Management PlanMissing
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Nature Reserve Management Plan Missing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentModerately resilient (2)Overall the GMR can be considered moderately resilient - it has undergone many changes within the time period, but the system regularly experiences perturbations, such as el nino events, and has recovered, but fisheries have crashed indicating some vulnerabilities and sharks are vulnerable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryModerately resilient (2)This species has experienced large population declines. Threats to the species are now eliminated, but populations have not recovered. Lobsters can recover failry quickly from overfishing, but the ecology and sub-populations are poorly understood in NWHI. As all anthropogenic threats have been reduced the lobsters should be mod resilient to future threats.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersModerately resilient (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersPoorly resilient (1)turtles are slow to reproduce with high infant mortality
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemPoorly resilient (1)Green turtles are slow to reporduce and easily exploited - particularly through harvesting of eggs. Turtles are also temperature-dependent sex determined, and there are concerns that increases in gloabl temperatures could skew sex-ratios.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat ManagersModerately resilient (2)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemModerately resilient (2)Overall, the Raja Ampat area is considered a healthy ecosystem and therefore resilient to future threats. However, land-based threats (mining, logging) are expected to have a large impact on these MPAs in the future.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtlePoorly resilient (1)Long life span, slow to reproduce and high infant mortality
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Managers 
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersModerately resilient (2)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersModerately resilient (2)High population size provides some resilience to disturbance. However, reliance upon a small number of concentrated breeding sites increases its sensitivity to stochastic events and disturbances (Birdlife International 2015)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersPoorly resilient (1)It's currently a "depleted fishery" so not resilient to over-fishing. Not enough information is know on the ecology of the sea cucumbers - it's density dependent for reproduction, but minimum density requirements are unknown. If it bounces back after current el nino (2015) then it could be considered mod. resilient?
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia State and Federal Fisheries AgenciesModerately resilient (2)With trawling and spatial fishing limitations, groundfish habitat is more resilient than has been in the past. But some species e.g. Dover sole, thornyhead, and sablefish prefer softer substrates which are much more resilient to threats than harder substrates with boulders, corals, and sponges (SeafoodWatch, 2014). Habitat is not very resilient to trawling.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityModerately resilient (2)The Macquarie Island Patagonian toothfish stock appears to be capable of sustainably supporting a small fishery
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGMR managersPoorly resilient (1)Sharks are k-selected species and thus prone to over-fishing. Most also have wide home ranges, and little is known about their ecology.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorPoorly resilient (1)Sharks are k-selected species and thus prone to over-fishing. Most also have wide home ranges, and little is known about their ecology. Tourism is unlikely to influence the resilience of this commons however.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island ManagersMissing
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatModerately resilient (2)These species are long lived, but with critical habitat areas being protected and precautionary quotas, the threat of habitat destruction and fishing pressures have declined substantially. However, climate change poses an uncertain threat.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Fisheries Management AuthorityMissing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenPoorly resilient (1)It's currently a "depleted fishery". Not enough information is know on the ecology of the sea cucumbers - it's density dependent for reproduction, but minimum density required is not known.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Environmental Protection ActModerately resilient (2)Two main threats to the polar bear are climate change and pollution. Studies in Svalbard (Derocher et al 2011) and elsewhere (Stirling et al 1999) have shown negative associations between the condition of individual polar bears and decreasing sea ice. In the long term, Derocher et al (2004) indicate that impacts from warming may lead to changes in: body condition, movement patterns, cub survival, reproductive rates, bear-human interactions, den areas, growth rates, prey composition, population boundaries, population size, intraspecific aggression, cannibalism, and adult survival. A modelling study (for the Beaufort Sea, not for Svalbard) projects drastic declines in the polar bear population later in the century (Hunter et al 2010). Pollution levels in polar bears have remained high in recent years. Although it is difficult to directly link changes in pollutant levels to the status of the population, it is suggested that high pollutant loads may have slowed growth rates (Derocher et al 2005), and may continue to adversely affect the population in the future (Jenssen et al 2006).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaPoorly resilient (1)The SBT is long-lived and highly fecund but characteristics such as slow-growth, late onset of sexual maturity (at approximately 11-12 years of age), the presence of a single spawning ground, and highly migratory behavior (exposing the stock to multiple fishing fleets) make it vulnerable to exploitation and potentially slow to recover from fishing (Collette and Nauen 1983; Pogonoski et al. 2002; Gunn et al. 2008).
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Resource ManagersModerately resilient (2)Two main threats to the polar bear are climate change and pollution. Studies in Svalbard (Derocher et al 2011) and elsewhere (Stirling et al 1999) have shown negative associations between the condition of individual polar bears and decreasing sea ice. In the long term, Derocher et al (2004) indicate that impacts from warming may lead to changes in: body condition, movement patterns, cub survival, reproductive rates, bear-human interactions, den areas, growth rates, prey composition, population boundaries, population size, intraspecific aggression, cannibalism, and adult survival. A modelling study (for the Beaufort Sea, not for Svalbard) projects drastic declines in the polar bear population later in the century (Hunter et al 2010). Pollution levels in polar bears have remained high in recent years. Although it is difficult to directly link changes in pollutant levels to the status of the population, it is suggested that high pollutant loads may have slowed growth rates (Derocher et al 2005), and may continue to adversely affect the population in the future (Jenssen et al 2006).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityHighly resilient (3)Considered a relatively pristine ecosystem - it is a remote region, and the whole ares is now no take so should be reslient to threats. Climate change is a future threat, but how trophic density may respond is unknown.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverModerately resilient (2)Raja Ampat regularly experiences wide temperature variations and so coral recovers quickly from bleaching ('pre-adapted to climate change'). However, many future threats are expected from uncontrolled land activities (logging/mining/road building) so coded as moderately resilient.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish Moderately resilient (2)Fish communities are generally considered to be fairly healthy, but there is evidence of overfishing with an absence of higher trophic species (Purwanto et al. 2012)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpModerately resilient (2)Threats to shrimp include fishing, predation by cod, and climate change. Although the total catches and the estimated biomass of shrimp have fluctuated, the fishery is thought to be satisfactory condition (NAFO 2012 b). As the cod stocks increase, there is expected to be greater predation on shrimp. Authorities recognize the need for integrated management, and fishing regulations for shrimp may be adjusted. As a polar region, Svalbard will experience greater warming than other regions of the world. As with any species, it remains questionable as to how adaptable the shrimp will be in the future; thus far, data shows that shrimp have been able to move with the warming waters (NAFO 2012a).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverModerately resilient (2)Coral reefs are able to recover from disturbances, but also change states if exposed to too much disturbance
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Moderately resilient (2)Rocky shore habitats have rebounded fairly quickly (within a year to a few years) from dramatic oil spills and habitat destruction. Disease outbreaks are a threat that decreases resiliency. Rocky shoreline organisms are often exposed to extreme conditions, thus building their resiliency to fluctuating conditions.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossModerately resilient (2)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries Governance Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management PlanModerately resilient (2)With trawling and spatial fishing limitations, groundfish habitat is more resilient than has been in the past. But some species e.g. Dover sole, thornyhead, and sablefish prefer softer substrates which are much more resilient to threats than harder substrates with boulders, corals, and sponges (SeafoodWatch, 2014). Habitat is not very resilient to trawling.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersHighly resilient (3)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersModerately resilient (2)While these species are slow maturing and slow growing, they are considered fairly resilient (IUCN Redlist).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleModerately resilient (2)Following historical depletion by commercial whaling, the Australian southern right whales have shown evidence of strong recovery, with a doubling time of 10-12 years (Best et al. 2001). Due to the slow reproductive rate of southern right whales recovery from threats is slow. Low genetic diversity likely as a result of severe exploitation has probably reduced the fitness of the population, making it more susceptible to, for example, disease events or rapid changes in habitat (IWC 2001).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentModerately resilient (2)Overall the GMR can be considered moderately resilient - it has undergone many changes within the time period, but the system regularly experiences perturbations, such as el nino events, and has recovered, but fisheries have crashed indicating some vulnerabilities and sharks are vulnerable. No reports of regime shifts.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR government co-managersHighly resilient (3)
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Charles Darwin FoundationPoorly resilient (1)Green turtles are slow to reproduce and easily exploited - particularly through harvesting of eggs. Turtles are also temperature-dependent sex determined, and there are concerns that increases in gloabl temperatures could skew sex-ratios.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismModerately resilient (2)Two main threats to the polar bear are climate change and pollution. Studies in Svalbard (Derocher et al 2011) and elsewhere (Stirling et al 1999) have shown negative associations between the condition of individual polar bears and decreasing sea ice. In the long term, Derocher et al (2004) indicate that impacts from warming may lead to changes in: body condition, movement patterns, cub survival, reproductive rates, bear-human interactions, den areas, growth rates, prey composition, population boundaries, population size, intraspecific aggression, cannibalism, and adult survival. A modelling study (for the Beaufort Sea, not for Svalbard) projects drastic declines in the polar bear population later in the century (Hunter et al 2010). Pollution levels in polar bears have remained high in recent years. Although it is difficult to directly link changes in pollutant levels to the status of the population, it is suggested that high pollutant loads may have slowed growth rates (Derocher et al 2005), and may continue to adversely affect the population in the future (Jenssen et al 2006).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAModerately resilient (2)Rocky shore habitats have rebounded fairly quickly (within a year to a few years) from dramatic oil spills and habitat destruction. Disease outbreaks are a threat that decreases resiliency. Rocky shoreline organisms are often exposed to extreme conditions, thus building their resiliency to fluctuating conditions.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleModerately resilient (2)Turtles are suceptiable to over-exploitation and ~90% of this population nest on the same low-lying atoll (French Frigate Shoalls). The population of green turtles within the NWHI is protected and threats are greatly reduced as this large area is completely no-take- there was recently a petition to removed the endangered species status of this sub-population, this was denied, but should it be removed the threats would be expected to increase.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtlePoorly resilient (1)As a long-lived species with slow reproductive capacity, turtles are not very resilient to threats. Some of the main threats include: bycatch from commercial fishing (in trawl nets and entanglement in lines), climate change (which may cause beach inundation and change sex ratios), and coastal development (habitat reduction from loss of beaches, and artificial light may disorient their navigation) (GBRMPA 2014).
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinModerately resilient (2)Given that King Penguins have recovered dramatically from past overexploitation, they have exhibited remarkable resilience. Further, all populations of King Penguins (throughout the subantarctic) are believed to have stable or increasing populations (though, in many places, data is poor or outdated due to the lack of human access at many of the remote subantarctic islands they breed on). Further, because King Penguins forage at the Polar Front, they are vulnerable to climate and environmental changes (Bost et al. 2013). While we lack data for populations at HIMI, King Penguin populations at Crozet Island have had to travel further and further north to reach their optimal foraging areas due to environmental changes caused by climate change. Scientists have estimated that by 2100, their foraging distances will have doubled, a distance far outside their normal foraging range. This would likely cause severe negative energetic consequences for foraging individuals, but may also cause adults to be gone from their nests too long. Potential phenological changes may also occur (Peron et al. 2012). Many other Southern Ocean seabirds, including penguins have exhibited phenological and other changes in response to climate change (e.g., Chambers et al. 2014, Lynch et al. 2012).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksPoorly resilient (1)Sharks are k-selected species and thus prone to over-fishing. Most also have wide home ranges, and little is known about their ecology.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverPoorly resilient (1)The reefs of Cendrawasih Bay, with their generally stable temperature regime, may prove to be particularly susceptible to temperature variations caused by climate change. Cenderwasih is the 'kingdon of hard corals' and the Bay has a very narrow SST range - when temperatures do vary there has been catastrophic bleaching (from 95% live coral to 10%) - so far it has been able to recover, but if these events are more frequent then it may not be able to. (Mangubhai et al. 2012, Erdmann pers comm)
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)Highly resilient (3)Reproduce quickly, so can rebound quickly
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeModerately resilient (2)The kittiwake is a pelagic gull that is monitored because it obtains its food on the surface (in contrast to other sea birds) and hence functions as an indicator for this part of the marine ecosystem - population declines have been linked to declines is prey availability, and avian influenza. The species is potentially threatened by climate change because it has a geographically bounded distribution: its global distribution is restricted to within c.10o latitude from the polar edge of continent and within which 20-50% of current vegetation type is projected to disappear under doubling of CO2 levels (BirdLife International, unpublished data).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersModerately resilient (2)Rocky shore habitats have rebounded fairly quickly (within a year to a few years) from dramatic oil spills and habitat destruction. Disease outbreaks are a threat that decreases resiliency. Rocky shoreline organisms are often exposed to extreme conditions, thus building their resiliency to fluctuating conditions.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Marine Park Act 2004-currentHighly resilient (3)
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishHighly resilient (3)High diversity, good state (still coral dominated through cover has declined significantly), key-stone species appear protected and under good management. However, faces significant threats from climate change and coastal land-use change.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceJoint Sanctuary Management Governance System Moderately resilient (2)While these species are slow maturing and slow growing, they are considered fairly resilient (IUCN Redlist).
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsPoorly resilient (1)It decreased from 21.3% cover in 2000 to 6.4% in 2014 while macroalgae increased in abundance from 39.1% to 73.1%.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceNational Marine Sanctuaries Office of NOAAModerately resilient (2)While these species are slow maturing and slow growing, they are considered fairly resilient (IUCN Redlist).
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersHighly resilient (3)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersPoorly resilient (1)As a long-lived species with slow reproductive capacity, turtles are not very resilient to threats. The population in the Wakatobi does not appear to be very large ("Until 12 Nov 2008, there had been 41 nests of turtles eggs, and 16 of them had incubated quite well (success level=85%))" - so even low levels of offtake are likely to have a large impact on overall population numbers
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearModerately resilient (2)Two main threats to the polar bear are climate change and pollution. Studies in Svalbard (Derocher et al 2011) and elsewhere (Stirling et al 1999) have shown negative associations between the condition of individual polar bears and decreasing sea ice. In the long term, Derocher et al (2004) indicate that impacts from warming may lead to changes in: body condition, movement patterns, cub survival, reproductive rates, bear-human interactions, den areas, growth rates, prey composition, population boundaries, population size, intraspecific aggression, cannibalism, and adult survival. A modelling study (for the Beaufort Sea, not for Svalbard) projects drastic declines in the polar bear population later in the century (Hunter et al 2010). Pollution levels in polar bears have remained high in recent years. Although it is difficult to directly link changes in pollutant levels to the status of the population, it is suggested that high pollutant loads may have slowed growth rates (Derocher et al 2005), and may continue to adversely affect the population in the future (Jenssen et al 2006).
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Governance System 1998-currentModerately resilient (2)Overall the GMR can be considered moderately resilient - it has undergone many changes within the time period, but the system regularly experiences perturbations, such as el nino events, and has recovered, but fisheries have crashed indicating some vulnerabilities and sharks are vulnerable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Governance SystemModerately resilient (2)Raja Ampat regularly experiences wide temperature variations and so coral recovers quickly from bleaching ('pre-adapted to climate change'). However, many future threats are expected from uncontrolled land activities (logging/mining/road building) so coded as moderately resilient.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthModerately resilient (2)The low likelihood of oil spills increases the resiliency of this ecosystem tremendously. However, 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay, invasive species, and pollution all have visibly negative effects on this habitat. The habitat is fairly resilient to fluctuating conditions as it is often exposed to wind, waves, and tides.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverModerately resilient (2)The coral reefs of the WNP are considered to be highly resilient: " Mass coral bleaching hit Wakatobi National Park more than 4 times since 1998. The last coral bleaching showed the resilience level of Wakatobi National Park was high. After 3 month from coral bleaching, the coral reef ecosystem was back to normal condition." http://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/assessing-ecological-resilience-of-indonesian-coral-reefs-1410-5217-14-318.pdf However, coded as moderately resilient because coral reefs may be more susceptible to regime shifts than other ecosystems
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningPoorly resilient (1)Spawning fish are susceptible to over-exploitation in a very short period of time
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossModerately resilient (2)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishModerately resilient (2)Fish communities are generally considered to be fairly healthy, but long history of fishing and few large fish. Cenderwasih has high levels of endemism, and is highly specialised - has a very narrow range sea surface temperature so very sensitive to any changes in temperature.
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Highly resilient (3)Very resilient. Reproduces quickly.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Highly resilient (3)Subject to conditions, but generally adapt. High growth rate. Migrate according to conditions, and "quality" of squid changes according to conditions.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish Moderately resilient (2)Like most deep-dwelling fish, toothfish have vulnerable life history characteristics and seem to have relatively small populations. Some of these populations (e.g., over BANZARE Bank) were heavily overexploited by IUU fishers in the 1990s and early 2000s and have yet to recovery (see McKinlay et al. 2008, Collins et al. 2010). However, toothfish at HIMI have been fished since 1997, including some years of heavy IUU fishing, and have persisted, showing they are capable of some resilience.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersMissingGiven that there were very few groupers in the area, I would say poorly resilient