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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD
QuestionHow negotiable is access by non-members of this actor group to this environmental commons?
Select Options1 Rigid, 2 Moderate, 3 Negotiable
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceThis is related to one of the design principles related to boundary clarity (Ostrom 1990; Cox et al. 2010)
Definition

"A negotiable boundary is one where ad-hoc negotiations can be and are commonly made by non-members to obtain access to this environmental common. A rigid boundary is one where negotiations to access this environmental commons by non-members are not possible or not fruitful."

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
TranshumanceNegotiable

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cox, Michael, Gwen Arnold, and Sergio Villamayor-Tomas. 2010. “A Review of Design Principles for Community-Based Natural Resource Management.” Ecology and Society 15 (4).


Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities Not sure how to interpret this question for this variable.
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia not sure what this means?
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian "Adat" Communities 
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceLarge Extractive Industries in Indonesia 
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceCivil society organizations in Indonesia 
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceIndonesian Local entrepreneurs ?
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersRigid (1)Although there were a large number of ODS producers spread across many countries, large-scale chemical producers such as DuPont in the US and Atochem in France dominate the industrial producers.
Montreal ProtocolGovernanceOzone Depleting Substance Industrial ProducersRigid (1)Although there were a large number of ODS producers spread across many countries, large-scale chemical producers such as DuPont in the US and Atochem in France dominate the industrial producers.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenRigid (1)After 1998 and GMR established, fishing rights given exclusively to local fishers, at small scales only (Schuhbauer & Koch, 2013; GNPS 1998). Fishing rights can be passed on within a family.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRigid (1)Rights may only be granted by AFMA, given the remote location and small size of the fishery boundaries are well established.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersModerate (2)Any researcher likely can study the humpback whale, given their study is appropriate under laws. Anyone can observe the humpback whale at a certain distance. No one can harm a marine mammal.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersModerate (2)Anyone can observe or conduct scientific projects in the area, however permits may not be delivered if scientific focus or methodologies are determined inappropriate/harmful. Rocky shores are easily accessible by public lands, however most resources for extraction are not legal.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersRigid (1)
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersRigid (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNegotiable (3)Although the boundary is open for any operator to initiate cruises to Svalbard, in practice almost all boats/operators are members of AECO.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenModerate (2)The groundfish fishery is composed of a limited entry trawl, limited entry fixed gear, and open access fishery. Anyone with the appropriate permits can fish in this area. If they have the correct permits and gear, anyone can join.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNegotiable (3)Anyone can be a recreational fisher, you do not need a license
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersRigid (1)Indirect access through observation. But it is an offense to kill, injure, take, trade, keep or move a listed species such as a southern right whale without authorization.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNegotiable (3)Access to non-members of this actor group to this environmental commons for recreational fishing or scientific research in the GABMP (CW) can be carried out under a permit issued by the Director of National Parks or under a Commonwealth or State law.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersRigid (1)Indirect access through observation, bu the Australian sea lion is a protected species
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNegotiable (3)Although the boundary is open for any operator to initiate cruises to Svalbard, in practice almost all boats/operators are members of AECO
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersMissingNO DATA
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersRigid (1)The ITQ and licensing system is very controlled and limited.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersRigid (1)QMS means quota is personal property. Can buy into, but very expensive and doesn't get sold much.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenModerate (2)Can negotiate a license (can buy).
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmersRigid (1)
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmers 
Caete-Teperacu Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Braganca, BrazilGovernanceAssociation of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in BrazilRigid (1)
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceSCUBA diving businesses on Gili TrawanganNot Applicable
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceGili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)Not Applicable
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernanceIsla Caballo AMPR Costa RicaModerate (2)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePalito-Montero AMPR Costa RicaModerate (2)
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePaquera-Tambor AMPR Costa RicaModerate (2)
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersRigid (1)
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceICPR nations (1976-1986) 
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)GovernanceRhine chemical firmsRigid (1)Installing a chemical firm in the Rhine's basin requires formally non-negotiable governmental permits
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishers Not applicable; recreational fishers don't target corals
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersRigid (1)Membership rules are clear, specified through flags and licenses.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersRigid (1)Membership rules are clear, specified through flags and licenses. Membership allocations were reduced in this time period.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorRigid (1)
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNegotiable (3)The Bajau are a minority group, but they make up the majority of fishers. However, there are other groups like the Butanese who access this commons hence boundaries are negotiable.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNegotiable (3)All harvesting of turtles is banned. However, technically the Butonese also have to access this commons hence boundaries are negotiable.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNegotiable (3)Butanese access the fishery but only Bajau mine coral / held reasonable for destructive gear use. Bajau cannot control access of others to the resource though Butanese have more diverse alternative livelihoods.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersModerate (2)Any person can be a recreational user (observer) of whales, but within the limits of the law. No one can extract a whale.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersRigid (1)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersRigid (1)There are strict regulations about the number of boats per country allowed to fish. Norwegian and Russian boats need permits. Therefore, the number of actors involved in shrimp fishing is highly regulated.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersRigid (1)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRigid (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRigid (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersRigid (1)Fishery boundaries are well established, given the remote location and small size of the fishery. Also only AFMA can give rights.