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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeOrdinal
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeIncentives (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionOther than this commons, does this actor group have access to alternative sources of economic livelihood or cultural well being?
Select Options1 Easily access other alternatives, 2 Can access other alternatives with some difficulty, 3 Cannot access alternatives
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceActors that have access to many livelihood sources are likely to be more resilient (Adger 2000), but may be less likely to conserve a commons.
Definition

Alternatives refers to other economic or cultural activities that could fulfill the same function as an environmental commons for this actor group. For example, a person who works as a logger might be able to get a equally well-paying job in a factory, or a fisherman might be able to farm in a nearby field, or substitute his fishing with aquaculture. Note that this variable does not relate to the extent to which there are other commons available to this group of the same type that they are currently using (e.g. for fishermen, it does not refer to the availability of alternative fishing locations or stocks).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Rational depletion of natural resourcesEasily Access other Alternatives
Critique of fortress conservationCannot access alternatives

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Other marine resources. Not sure about ecotourism.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HEasily access other alternatives (1)100% of respondents indicate that they derive at least some portion of their income from non-fisheries activities.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land.
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DEasily access other alternatives (1)100% of community members derive some portion of their income from non-fisheries sources.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismEasily access other alternatives (1)Can access other wildlife species
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp Fishers 
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BMissing
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity CEasily access other alternatives (1)
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ANot Applicable
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Groups hold rights to harvest toothfish resources in other areas such as the Heard and Macdonald Islands.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersEasily access other alternatives (1)
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)While fishermen are heavily invested in the groundfish fishery, many can access other livelihood sources; many go into construction or real estate.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Other commons provide similar tourist attractions, e.g. dolphins, sea lions, but many people specifically come to watch the humpback whales, and thus it may be difficult for individuals seeking whales to find alternative sources.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Can access other fisheries
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism SectorCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Tourism is the main economic activity in the Galapagos - unlikely to be able to find other employment options easily - could emigrate back to mainland Ecuador.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FEasily access other alternatives (1)93% of respondents indicate that they derive income from sources other than the local fishery.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)access to other fish species, and pelagic environment (dependent on season), but overall heavily dependent on coral-reef associated fish
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Can access other fisheries
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)access to other fish species, and pelagic environment (dependent on season), but overall heavily dependent on coral-reef associated fish
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersEasily access other alternatives (1)
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Fishers hold rights to harvest toothfish elsewhere (Macquarie Island toothfish) and could apply to fish in CCAMLR's high seas toothfish fisheries.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity ECan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Only 13% of respondents derive income from non-fisheries related sources.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismEasily access other alternatives (1)Can access other bird and wildlife species
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Many communities also farm, although their dependence on the sea versus land varies between communities based on their tradition and available land.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenEasily access other alternatives (1)Fishers were provided with economic incentives to encourage “alternative livelihoods” related to tourism - and since the fishery is now closed assume that many were able to transition to other livelihoods. Galapagos Report 2011-2012 indicates the process took a long time to be implemented and that reforms relating to the exchange from fishing permits to tourism permits are needed.
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GEasily access other alternatives (1)100% of respondents indicate that they derive at least some portion of their income from non-fisheries sources.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)access to other fish species, and pelagic environment (dependent on season), but overall heavily dependent on coral-reef associated fish
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersEasily access other alternatives (1)The Joint Ventures are involved with other fisheries and other industries. They are local business men in freight, construction, small aquaculture. Officers and crew - unsure but likely have options but fishing is best one.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Can easily go to other fisheries (hake, hoki). Also are active in other food industries e.g. agriculture, frozen vegetables, ice cream. Aquaculture. Hotels. Crew not as much.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenEasily access other alternatives (1)Many can easily find other jobs (many go into construction, real estate, taxis) or are set for retirement.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat TourismCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)There are other tourist activities: trekking, bird watching and sightseeing, but main attraction is diving.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersEasily access other alternatives (1)Can access other fisheries
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersCan access other alternatives with some difficulty (2)Most households have dual livelihoods but fishers argue that it is difficult for them to transition out of fishing