• Logged in as Unregistered User
  • Sign in

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDoes this actor group monitor its own activities with respect to the use of this commons?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceWithout monitoring, members of this actor group may not face costs of breaking commons management rules, creating an incentive to overuse the commons, leading to negative commons outcomes. A large body of literature has confirmed that monitoring, particularly when combined with sanctioning, is extremely important for the successful commons management.
Definition

This variable captures whether the members of this actor group monitor each others' behavior towards the commons.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
CBNRM design principlesYes
EnforcementYes (or substituted with external monitoring)
Parametric managementYes

Associated Studies

Study Citation

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HYes
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersYesAccording to Elizabeth Taylor some of the fishing coops engage in social monitoring of its members and report violations in general.
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmers 
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernanceIsla Caballo AMPR Costa RicaNo
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePaquera-Tambor AMPR Costa RicaYes
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenNoeven with GPS trackers and on-board observers fishermen were fishing in no-take areas (G. Edgar pers comm)
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoFishers do not formally monitor the behavior of other toothfish fishers.
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector I assume there would be informal monitoring of other operators because there is an International Galapagos Tour Operators Association: http://www.igtoa.org/about
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoFishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoFishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNothe concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesResearchers often are specifically monitoring use.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersYesWhale-watching vessels record and monitor their activities.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AYesOne or more members of the community indicate that they informally monitor the use of fisheries resources.
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BYes
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesLocal monitoring of MPAs
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism 
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesCommunities/fishers are involved in the management and patrolling of the MPAs
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesCommunity members/local fishers involved in patrols/enforcement
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNoFollow guidelines, but do not monitor own activities
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNoWhile informal self-monitoring is likely, this is not at a large scale.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FYes
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoFishers do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNoFishermen have log books for their own activities, but they do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoFishers do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoToothfish fishers do not monitor the behavior of toothfish fishers with regards to seabird bycatch.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoToothfish fishers do not monitor each other's behavior. But because of the small group size, there would likely be informal pressure put on any fisher that was violating rules.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoAlthough they could, there is no evidence that they do.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoFishers do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNoFollow guidelines, but do not monitor own activities
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DYesThere is evidence that one or more members of this user group informally monitors the behavior of others and reports offenders for potential sanctioning.
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EYes
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GYes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNoNo evidence of this
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNoNo evidence of this
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersYesFishermen keep logbooks. They also report sizes caught and other data. They also report any observed discrepancies in the Loligo Box.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesHeavily involved with monitoring fishing activities and SLED use in fishery by all vessels. All landings recorded.
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYesLogbooks, and captains are well aware of activity on vessel and mammal/seabird interaction.
Pond aquaculture on Lombok, IndonesiaGovernanceLombok aquaculture farmersNo
Caete-Teperacu Extractive Reserve (RESEX) in Braganca, BrazilGovernanceAssociation of Users in the Caete-Teperacu RESEX (ASSUREMACATA) in BrazilNo
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceSCUBA diving businesses on Gili TrawanganYesIndividual dive records
Gili Trawangan Coastal TourismGovernanceGili Indah Dive Association (GIDA)Yes
Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica fisheries governanceGovernancePalito-Montero AMPR Costa RicaYes