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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeActor
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeEnforcement (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionDoes this actor group monitor its own activities with respect to the use of this commons?
Select Options
Unit
RoleCommonsUser
ImportanceWithout monitoring, members of this actor group may not face costs of breaking commons management rules, creating an incentive to overuse the commons, leading to negative commons outcomes. A large body of literature has confirmed that monitoring, particularly when combined with sanctioning, is extremely important for the successful commons management.
Definition

This variable captures whether the members of this actor group monitor each others' behavior towards the commons.

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
CBNRM design principlesYes
EnforcementYes (or substituted with external monitoring)
Parametric managementYes

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity HYes
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity DYesThere is evidence that one or more members of this user group informally monitors the behavior of others and reports offenders for potential sanctioning.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesLocal monitoring of MPAs
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Shrimp FishersNoFishermen have log books for their own activities, but they do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNoFollow guidelines, but do not monitor own activities
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish FishermenNoWhile informal self-monitoring is likely, this is not at a large scale.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesCommunity members/local fishers involved in patrols/enforcement
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoFishers do not formally monitor the behavior of other toothfish fishers.
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoFishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Sanctuary Recreational UsersYesWhale-watching vessels record and monitor their activities.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersNo
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C 
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoToothfish fishers do not monitor the behavior of toothfish fishers with regards to seabird bycatch.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoFishers do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Artisanal FishersYesCommunities/fishers are involved in the management and patrolling of the MPAs
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Tourism Sector I assume there would be informal monitoring of other operators because there is an International Galapagos Tour Operators Association: http://www.igtoa.org/about
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNoFishing grounds are envisaged by the Bajau as open to all individuals, regardless of their origin or nationality, hence the concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoFishers do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard TourismNoFollow guidelines, but do not monitor own activities
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower artisanal fishersYesAccording to Elizabeth Taylor some of the fishing coops engage in social monitoring of its members and report violations in general.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoAlthough they could, there is no evidence that they do.
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Academic ResearchersYesResearchers often are specifically monitoring use.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNoNo evidence of this
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity FYes
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Artisan FishermenNoeven with GPS trackers and on-board observers fishermen were fishing in no-take areas (G. Edgar pers comm)
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity EYes
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih fishersNoNo evidence of this
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity GYes
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Bajau fishersNothe concept of marine resource ownership, together with the implicit enforcement of regulations, is in reality far removed from Bajau cultural norms (Clifton 2013).
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity BYes
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid fishermenYesLogbooks, and captains are well aware of activity on vessel and mammal/seabird interaction.
New Zealand squidGovernanceNew Zealand Arrow Squid FishersYesHeavily involved with monitoring fishing activities and SLED use in fishery by all vessels. All landings recorded.
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian Squid TrawlersYesFishermen keep logbooks. They also report sizes caught and other data. They also report any observed discrepancies in the Loligo Box.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR commercial fishersNo
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Commercial FishersNoFishers do not monitor the behavior of other fishers.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Tourism 
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR recreational fishersNot Applicable
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity AYesOne or more members of the community indicate that they informally monitor the use of fisheries resources.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceAustralian Toothfish FishersNoToothfish fishers do not monitor each other's behavior. But because of the small group size, there would likely be informal pressure put on any fisher that was violating rules.