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Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database: Variables

Variable TypeBinary
Variable Component TypeNatural Resource Unit, Natural Resource System
Variable KindInteraction
ThemeInstitutions (learn about themes)
ProjectsSESMAD, Fiji fisheries
QuestionAre there well-articulated markets for goods produced by or associated with this commons that affect this particular commons?
Select Options
Unit
Role
ImportanceMarkets are a governance structure for allocating bundles of property rights concerning resources and components or products of social-ecological systems to actors. They may be part of larger governance systems concerning a resource system. Their functioning provides a way of articulating value concerning the resource, components or products thereof. Property rights to resources, their components and products co-determine the monetary valuation of these assets.
Definition

“Markets represent a subset of the many institutional arrangements that have developed over time for transferring rights. The fundamental characteristic of this subset is that it specializes in the exchange of property rights through mechanisms that require the mutual consent of parties involved (markets don’t give “orders”) and that coordinate the decentralized decisions made by agents using the information provided through the price system” (Menard 2005).

Sectors

Theory Usages

TheoryValue Used
Marginalization and degradationPresent
Cap-and-trade policiesPresent
Market-driven resource declinePresent
Roving banditryPresent

Case Usages

CaseInteraction TypeComponentValue UsedExplanation
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaYesThere were well articulated markets for forest products
Forests in IndonesiaGovernanceForests in IndonesiaYesForest products are traded internationally & locally, and are part of well articulated markets.
Galapagos Marine ReserveBiophysicalGalapagos Sea Cucumber 
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceWestern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Yes
Community D (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity D Fish ResourcesYes
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaYes
Community G (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity G Fish ResourcesNo
Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ICCAT)GovernanceEastern Atlantic Bluefin TunaYes
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNo
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishYes
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Rocky Shores Ecosystem HealthNoThe value of the coastal trail is uncertain, but likely high in terms of attracting tourists.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR coral coverNotourism
Montreal ProtocolBiophysicalOzoneNot Applicable
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR target fishYes
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi coral coverYesSmall market for lime from corals
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi fish spawningYesMost of the resources extracted are for local subsistence. Some also traded in district-level markets with the exception of the small live reef fish trade.
Community H (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity H Fish ResourcesNo
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernancePatagonian Toothfish YesToothfish resources are sold on global markets, dominated by US and Japan.
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNoThere are no markets for light mantled albatross
Macquarie Island Marine ParkGovernanceMacquarie Island Royal PenguinNo
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Lobster FisheryNot Applicable
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Green TurtleNot Applicable
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Green TurtleNot Applicable
Wakatobi National Park GovernanceWakatobi Green TurtleNoMajority of fish catch is for subsistence (Exton 2010) - assume same for turtles. Although there is evidence of illegal trade (Clifton 2013) this is not considered to be large. TNC appear to have a programme to pay locals to monitor nesting turtles - but these are not Bajau: http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/asiaandthepacific/indonesia/explore/safe-haven-for-turtles.xml
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Sea LionNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Humpback WhaleYesYes, the tourism industry, particularly whale-watching and kayaking, are well-articulated markets for humpback whales in the Sanctuaries.
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Marine National MonumentGovernanceNWHI Trophic DensityNoArea is no take
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos SharksNo
Community C (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity C Fish ResourcesYesMiddlemen live within or near the village.
Community F (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity F Fish ResourcesYes
Community B (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity B Fish ResourcesYesMiddlemen live near or within a few kilometers of the community.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Green TurtleNot Applicable
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Reef Fish Yespredominantly local subsistence, but some commercial fishing
Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR)GovernanceGalapagos Sea CucumberYesAt the start of the time period being coded there were, but now the fishery is closed and stocks are so low they are no longer profitable for a regular export trader to be in place. Two sea cucumber export companies are registered in the Galapagos and control a large amount of the market. There are more than 20 companies and people registered in mainland Ecuador that purchase sea cucumbers and export them to Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. (Bremmer & Perez, 2002)
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard Polar BearNoGoods no longer produced. (Prior to 1973, hunting yielded polar bear fur/pelts).
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Bluefin TunaYesFarming Southern bluefin tuna is currently the single most valuable sector of South Australia’s aquaculture industry. Over the past decade the farmed sector has grown to the point where around 98% of the Australian southern bluefin tuna quota is now farmed.
Community A (Fiji fisheries)GovernanceCommunity A Fish ResourcesYesMiddlemen live within 5km of the village.
Raja Ampat (National Act No. 32 2004)GovernanceRaja Ampat Coral CoverNo
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard ShrimpYesMarket for cod, which is predates on shrimp
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernancePatagonian Toothfish YesPatagonian toothfish are sold in upscale markets and restaurants as "Chilean sea bass" throughout the world, particularly in the USA and Japan.
Great Australian Bight Marine Park (GABMP) (Commonwealth Waters)GovernanceGABMP (Commonwealth Waters) Southern Right WhaleNot Applicable
Central California National Marine Sanctuaries GovernanceCalifornia Groundfish HabitatYesProducers are well defined and while markets shift, they are well-established.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceLight Mantled AlbatrossNoThere are no markets for goods produced.
Great Barrier Reef Marine ParkGovernanceGBR Green TurtleNoGoods (i.e. eggs, meat, shells) are no longer harvested for market. Some Traditional harvesting is permitted, but these harvests are not part of formal markets.
Heard and McDonald Islands Marine ReserveGovernanceKing PenguinNoThere is no known market for King Penguins.
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih coral coverNoTourism - high-end liveabord - is increasing in the area. Currently 6–10 dive liveaboard vessels.
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower coral reefsNot Applicable
Falkland Islands squidGovernancePatagonian squid (Loligo gahi)YesPrimarily European (Spain) market, some South Africa, India, USA
Svalbard Nature ReservesGovernanceSvalbard KittiwakeNo
Cenderwasih National ParkGovernanceCenderwasih target fishYespredominantly local subsistence, but some commercial fishing
New Zealand squidGovernanceArrow Squid (Nototodarus spp.)Yes
California squidGovernanceCalifornia market squid (Loligo opalescens)Yes
Community E (Fiji Fisheries)GovernanceCommunity E Fish ResourcesYes
Seaflower MPAGovernanceSeaflower groupersYesThese are important commercial species.